Monday, September 30, 2019

Procter and Gamble Company Essay

Background Procter and Gamble was formed by James Gamble & William Procter in 1837 by a candle manufacturer Procter and a soap manufacturer Gamble. This consumer product company started with a vision to grow to a $33 billion company and by 1879 it started selling its products directly to the consumers, by 1890 it has gained its legal corporation and ever since it has doubled it sales every ten years. P&G growth was driven by innovation not optimization. Radical innovation served as their backbone to success with other factors such as geographic expansion, product line extensions and acquisitions contributing to its growth. Some of its famous and successful acquisitions were, Duncan Hines, Clorox, charmin Paper mills, Folgers Coffee, NorwichEaton, Vicks (NyQuil), Noxell and Max Factor. It also recieves  the credit for developing innovative and advanced technology based products during 1940’s such as Tide, Crest,Pampers, Bounce etc.By the end of 1980’s P&G had its operations in 58 countries,its reputation was built with its new product development strategiesÍ ¾ they produced varied range of consumer products such that these products should meet â€Å"basic consumer needs† and create â€Å"superior total value† creating a brand image for the company. As noted in Kevin Kelly’s quote â€Å"Wealth in new regime flows directly from innovation and not optimization†, i.e. wealth is not gained by perfecting the known, but imperfecting the unknown. P&G successfully used this strategy to earn its reputation as one of the largest company in Cincinnati in 1895 and in 1995 earned the National Medal of technology, the highest given award in United states. P&G was also known for its strong ethics, values and recruiting the best and brightest. R&D was a major focus of P&G. In 1995 P&G spent 1.3billion on R&D,and emphasis was laid on combination of multiple R&D competencies and there were a lot of cross fertilization of technology. They also had an attractive work culture, employee compensation and had a structure in place which assured employees of growing within the organization with its up through the rank approach which fostered innovation. In the process of growing, P&G moved out of their old tradition of new product development and concentrated completely on the global expansion and development of existing products. With structured product  sectors in place, P&G had some difficulty fitting some new product idea into any of the available category which led to the rejection on various novel ideas. In 1993, the company started the Strengthening Global Effectiveness (SGE) with the goal of increasing profits through cost reduction which was achieved by reengineering  and reformation of distribution and manufacturing. This led to a successful increase in profits from 10% to 17% in a year. In the same year, CEO John Pepper said that their was an urge for developments of new brands in order to fulfill the companies longtime goals of increasing their sales. Mark Collar, Vice President and General Manager of New Business Development and a part of SGE said that a breakthrough is required to manage and accelerate the company’s innovation process. In addition, the concept of cross fertilization was fading out gradually so their was a requirement of a new innovation team that can incorporate the old traditions followed by the company during the 1960’s. Therefore this lead to the formation of Innovation Leadership Team (ILT) in 1993. The top seven officers of the company were a part of this team: John Pepper(Chairman and CEO)Í ¾ Durk Jager(President and COO)Í ¾ Wolfgang Berndt(Executive VP North America)Í ¾ Gordon Brunner(Senior VP Research and Development)Í ¾ Gary Martin(Senior VP Information Services and Product Supply) and Eric Nelson(Senior VP and CFO)Í ¾ Robert Wehling (Senior VP Advertising and Market Research). The ILT’s responsibility is to investigate the portfolio of the projects under development and projects on shelf, select valuable projects that add value to the firm. Soon Corporate Innovation Fund(CIF) was established for the funding the research on new products developments. The employees can report projects irrespective of their sector and obtain approval at very fast pace on appropriate projects.

Sunday, September 29, 2019

English language communication Essay

By learning English, we can develop four important skills like listening, speaking, reading and writing. Advantages of learning English language communication is an endless list, creating possibilities each day to connect with people worldwide. With command over English language you can get jobs easily and can participate in interviews and discuss with people in a group about any particular important topic or aspect. English communication gains us wisdom and we can also gain lots of knowledge by reading online magazines, newspapers, story books, essays, websites and journals and any of the greatest and famous writing written in English by poets, authors or leaders. Apart from being most important, widely used and useful, English is considered to be one of the easiest languages to learn and speak. With daily practice, you can communicate-well with others and improve your skills, show-off or expose your skills before others to impress and motivate them to come up with their English language communications skills. Hence, English even-though being a foreign language to many is now most commonly used language worldwide. Advantages of learning English language communication is an endless list, creating possibilities each day to connect with people worldwide. With command over English language you can get jobs easily and can participate in interviews and discuss with people in a group about any particular important topic or aspect. English communication gains us wisdom and we can also gain lots & lots of knowledge by reading online magazines, newspapers, story books, essays, websites and journals and any of the greatest and famous writing written in English by poets, authors or leaders. Apart from being most important, widely used and useful, English is considered to be one of the easiest languages to learn and speak. With daily practice, you can communicate-well with others and improve your skills, show-off or expose your skills before others to impress and motivate them to come up with their English language communications skills. Hence, English even-though being a foreign language to many is now most commonly used language worldwide especially in British dominion later became Independent republican countries like India and Pakistan. Proud to be an Indian, speaking foreign language, so people around you can’t understand. Knowledge of English is important as we can get to know how to frame sentences, how to use words in dialogues while speaking to others. As every word has a particular context where it fits right, using words in such a manner in English is an art that can only be mastered by practice. And with such command, we can easily communicate with others on any level. Mostly, listening and speaking improves our command on English language. Daily listening to English speakers and trying speaking in English, helps you to know how to use the language, where to use each word and when to use it in a correct manner.

Saturday, September 28, 2019

Developing an interactive timeline Literature review

Developing an interactive timeline - Literature review Example Arthur Conan Doyle collection that would help in attracting more visitors towards their website thereby increase the profitability of the origination. The youth and adults of the present generations prefer to remain away from books and academic materials as involving in various social networking activities has become common among them (Palla & et. al., 2013).   It serves difficult to attract these sections of the people towards reading books for which it has become essential for such organizations to implement an effective interactive timeline in their website that would help in attracting them and therefore spent much time in their websites. Interactive media in the timeline may be in the form of attractive texts, graphics, video, animation or even audio that would attract the people to visit that particular website and spent more time in them (Grigoreanu & et. al., 2009). It is a common trend among all people that they always prefer something that is entertaining and attractive i n nature, rather than the static contents in the website that creates a dull interface. According to Liu & et. al. (2002), it is inherently necessary for the organizations and website designers to develop an interactive timeline that would allow the people of every generation irrespective of their ages to access the particular website without any difficulty. There are various people with deformities such as color blindness and old people for whom the letters and font size should be kept clear and large.

Friday, September 27, 2019

Technology discuss about ( IGES) & (X3D) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Technology discuss about ( IGES) & (X3D) - Essay Example The researcher compared the results between IGES and Web-Based 3D XML format after carrying the observations. This study collected secondary data was collected prior to the study to analyze and compare with findings of research already conducted in this field. 3D XML is a lightweight XML-based standard. It uses NURBS to represent graphic objects such as freeform surfaces and tessellating polygons. XML schema also includes product geometry, structure, and graphical display properties (3D XML 2008). Enables authors and designers to convey 3D information from various systems using a simpler and more direct syntax than straight VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language (An Approach to Accessing Product Data across System and Software Revisions, 2007) The IGES format is a neutral data format used to transfer the design to a dissimilar system. IGES is a commonly used for data interchange of 2D and 3D CAD model. It is also used to illustrate simple figures of CAD or "drawing" applications. IGES files include parameters of the IGES object such as; its version number, model size, and encoded elements. In March 1994, The IGES Project committee approved the registration of the format as a MIME data type. The above discussion highlights the existence of more advantages than disadvantages when comparing 3D XML to other formats. It also highlights the more advantages than disadvantages of IGES’s. This is mainly because of its comprehensive coverage and user friendly features such as its simple control strategies. It is concluded that advantages of IGES outweighs its

Thursday, September 26, 2019

An investment scheme to finance boot camps Research Proposal

An investment scheme to finance boot camps - Research Proposal Example This is to ensure that children attention is arrested before they are swayed by peer pressure. Behavioral finance is a new field that tries to combine both the behavioral and cognitive physiology in explaining the reasons why people make financial decisions that are irrational. The financial decisions being made by various institutions mandated with protecting the interests of the vulnerable children are failing to capture the real issues that need to be addressed in order to improve the living standards of the children. Exposing the children to some environment is playing a significant role in diverting them towards the education. As a result, they end up not helping their parents once they grow up (Maisel 2014). Therefore, it is critical to understand the importance of behavioral finance especially while making financial decisions that will affect other people. Investor behavior keeps on deviating from logic and reason. The behavior is mainly affected by emotional processes, mental mistakes, and individual personality. These make it very hard to make decisions. Therefore, investment is not a matter of analyzing numbers. Instead, a large part of investment is embedded on the individual behavior. There are many types of behavioral biasness while investing. For instance, cognitive bias can be seen as a rule of thumb which can lead to a systematic deviation from the correct judgment. Some of the common behavioral biasness that can affect the investors’ decisions includes representativeness, worry, disposition effect, familiarity bias, anchoring, and self-attribution biasness (Maisel 2014). In economics, financial intermediation is a process that involves borrowing money and lending it to other parties that are in dire need for financial support. Children act as an important investment for any government or society. Therefore, in this case, the money from the investors will be used to finance different activities being undertaken in the boot camps.

Wednesday, September 25, 2019

How the employee motivation techniques and theories currently being Dissertation

How the employee motivation techniques and theories currently being used in different organisations can be changed or improved t - Dissertation Example By examining the factors that lead to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction, the report intends to establish employee motivation techniques and strategies that organizations can employee for long term employee retention. Qualitative data was collected from employees of Standard Chartered and CO-Operative banks in the United Kingdom. The factors that made employees have job satisfaction and be motivated were explored in detail. The main focus of this study is on what sustainable measures organizations can use to motivate their employees in order to reduce employee turnover. The study was based on different motivation theories that were used to guide data collection and analysis. Table of Contents Acknowledgements 2 Abstract 3 CHAPTER ONE 1 1.0 Introduction 1 1.1Background of the Study 2 1.3 Statement of the Problem 3 1.4 Purpose of the Study 3 1.5 Research Questions 3 1.6 Research Objectives 4 CHAPTER TWO 4 2.0 Literature Review 4 2.1 Employee Retention 5 2.2 Motivation 6 2.3 Employee Motivation 6 2.4 Need Theories of Motivation 7 2.4.1 Maslow’s hierarchy of needs 7 2.4.2 Herzberg’s two factor theory 8 2.5 Equity Theory 9 2.6 Vroom’s Expectancy Theory 10 2.7Job Design 12 2.7.1 Job characteristics model 12 CHAPTER THREE 15 3.0 Research Methodology 15 3.1Research Philosophy 15 3.1.1 Positivism 15 3.1.2 Interpretivism 16 3.2 Research Design 16 3.3 Research Strategy 17 3.3.1 Case study 17   3.4 Population 18 3.5 Data Collection and Instrumentation 18 3.6 Data Analysis 19 3.7 Ethical Considerations 20 3.8 Limitations and De-limitations 21 CHAPTER FOUR 22 4.0 Data Presentation and Analysis 22 4.1 Participant Demographics 22 4.2 Job Satisfaction Factors 23 4.3 Case Study Analysis 25 CHAPTER FIVE 26 5.0 Conclusion and Recommendations 26 5.2 Recommendations 27 5.2.1 Work-life balance consideration 27 5.2.2Transformational leadership and management 27 Works Cited 28 List of Figures Figure 1: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (Maslow, 54)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.†¦..8 Figure 2: Vroom’s theory of expectancy model (Vroom, 1964)†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦..10 Figure 3: Job Characteristics Model of Work Motivation (Hackman & Oldham, 78).................14 Figure 4: Factors for employee motivation...................................................................................25 List of Tables Table 1: Issues to Address Concerning Employees with Regard to Expectancy Theory†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.....11 Table 2: Demographics of the study participants..........................................................................23 Table 3: Response of Participants on Factors for Employee Motivation.....................................23 CHAPTER ONE 1.0 Introduction It is the goal of every organization and business to be successful and have competitive advantage in its industry. In the contemporary b usiness environment, characterized by globalization and changing demographics such as Generation Y, organizations face many challenges in their quest to remain competitive. Additionally, advances in information and communications technologies (ICT) and changing consumer patterns have driven organizations globally to adopt new organizational structures and methods of production that have greatly enhanced the mobility of people, and in turn, facilitated the rate of employee turnover. An organization’s human capital is its greatest resource and crucial to its success or failure. In most cases, qualified and well-trained staff who are committed and motivated can be a source of competitive advantage. Losing competent employees can be detrimental to the productivity of an organization. With regard to this, recruiting the right employees is a challenge, but retaining these employees is

Tuesday, September 24, 2019

Mission, Vision, and Value Paper Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Mission, Vision, and Value Paper - Essay Example The company is a leading player in the gum and mint category too (Hershey’s Company Profile, 2009). Continuing with the legacy of Milton Hershey, the company is committed to consumers, communities and children by providing high-quality products while conducting business in environmentally sustainable manner. At workplace, the company maintains safety and wellness for the employees fostering openness and inclusiveness making it a desirable place to work. Hersheys believes in sharing knowledge so as to grow together by not only creating an environment of mutual respect but also unleashing human potential at the workplace. In marketplace, the company is committed to consumer well-being as well as fair and ethical business dealings. The company always strives for and creates a positive impact at the local community level where it operates (Listen, learn and act, 2011). Ever since Milton Hershey laid the foundation of the company, the mission, vision and value statements have worked as a guiding spirit for the growth and development of the company earning goodwill among its customers and local communities. The company is ‘open to possibilities’ in all its endeavors, always ready to embrace diversity seeking new approaches. The aim is to achieve continuous improvement in what they do. There is no doubt that the clarity of vision and values has helped the company reach to its present state. In 2011, the company had 15.6% of its sales coming from outside the U.S. and as part of global expansion strategy the company is increasing its investments outside the U.S in the countries such as Brazil, Mexico, India and China. In view of the new growth strategy, the company needs to perform environmental scanning to assess external factors that might affect the Hershey’s in the long run (Sadler, 2003 p181). Numerous risks are

Monday, September 23, 2019

Allocation of Scarce Resources in a Market Mechanism Assignment

Allocation of Scarce Resources in a Market Mechanism - Assignment Example Hence the need for an efficient allocation of the existing resource base through prioritization of wants is being felt increasingly. Effective allocation of the scarce resource base is the only way through which a country can satisfy the demands of its growing population and work towards profitability. To counter the system of effective allocation of the existing resource base the economies of the world are generally faced by three fundamental questions. Firstly, the economy needs to consider the nature and the pattern of the goods and services that need to be produced to meet the needs and demands of the growing population. Secondly, the economy needs to identify the most effective way through which the goods and services can be produced to justify the use of depleting resource base. Thirdly, the economy must understand the needs of the target population who will eventually consume the goods and services produced. (Riley, 2006; Economic Systems, 2010). To this end, it is found that allocation of the scarce and limited resource base in an economy driven by ‘market mechanism’ is conditioned on the price quotes obtained through auctions or bids. The resources of the economy are transferred to private hands through the system of bids and auctions. The observation made in this regard shows that the government of different countries operating in a market mechanism has made the private sector get a license in relation to oil exploration and land property rights. The private system in the economy owing to the above fact has emerged as key players in areas like broadcasting, education, housing and oil exploration. Here, it must be noted that allocation of the limited resource base through market mechanism depends on the purchaser’s desire to pay for the same. Information about the highest price that can be paid by the purchasers are gathered through the bidding system and the decision is taken henceforth on the acquired data.

Sunday, September 22, 2019

French and Indian War Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

French and Indian War - Essay Example The Construction of fortresses in the Ohio valley was also a cause of the war. In 1750, a group of Virginian businessmen secured themselves about 500,000 acres in Ohio valley for settlement. This same piece of land had earlier been claimed by Joseph Celeron for France; the French did so to prevent the British from further expanding into the French colonies and, therefore, begun to construct fortresses on Ohio valley, which made, the British suspicious (Santella 45). This move made the British suspicious and they begun constructions of fortresses and army preparations to counter the French. These army preparations can be regarded as the main cause of the war. Different religious affiliations were also a key concern. The French who had earlier settled in America were Catholics, and they felt threatened since the many violent Indians were non Catholics. The Britons had religious freedom and also felt threatened by the French catholic. This was an ideological difference rather than political; it contributed to the war. Economical differences between France and the British also led to the war. Since both the French and the British were traders, need arose to increase the market base. As a result, the two countries fought to acquire more space for trading and also a market to sell their commodities (Calloway 41). Dispute of the confluence of the Allgney and Monongahela River caused the war. The two rivers situated in the present day Pennsylvania and, Pittsburgh were a main concern for the two colonialists; each wanted to take full control. Consequently, a war erupted between the Native American soldiers and the French soldiers. The French lea ders from Quebec sent the military to discourage the Indian from trading with the British people in that region. Massacre of some French by the Indians also contributed to the war; the Indians were colonies of the British. Their soldiers got directions from George Washington to kill the French. This massacre forced George to surrender and withdraw from further fighting (Calloway 43). The British had not formally declared war on France. The British military, leader Duke organized a series of campaigns designed to cease the French rule in North America. The Generals led attacks against the French in the regions where the French had built fortresses; this was done

Saturday, September 21, 2019

What are the relevant facts Essay Example for Free

What are the relevant facts Essay According to this case, Stacy is a new employee of a local CPA firm, who is on probation and asked to perform an advanced level jobs, because this firm has a heavy turnover. There are some morale and organizational problems with this CPA firm, so that a psychologist is brought into assess these problems. Both Stacy and other employees in this firm point out the same management problems, and some employees even have resigned from this firm. Stacy is helping interview candidates for the open accounting positions. What are the ethical issues? Generally, Stacy has a duty of loyalty to the firm when interviewing prospective job candidates. There are laws require that an employee refrain from behaving in a manner that would be contrary to his employer’s interests. But this duty of loyalty is not absolute; it is influenced by the responsibility and trust between employees and employers. Therefore, even Stacy has a duty of loyalty to the firm, he also can judge if employers’ decisions and arrangements are right. He has no duty to provide truthful information to candidates. What are the primary stakeholders? The partners of the CPA firm, Stacy, all other employees of the CPA firm, and prospective employees of the CPA firm, and clients are primary stakeholders. What are the possible alternatives? First, Stacy can resign from this CPA firm, if he thinks he can not do for the firm any more. Second, Stacy can be loyal to the firm and do what he is told to do. Third, he can tell the truth to the candidates about the information of this firm. What are the ethics of the alternatives? First, based on utilitarianism, Stacy should keep loyal to the firm and do not make frank communication with the candidates. Because this is related to his own job, he has to keep him away from being fired. Second, based on rights, candidates have rights to know the true information about the firm, so Stacy should tell them the truth. Third, based on fairness, tell the truth seems to be fair for candidates and him. But he may loss his job because of frank communication. This is an unfair burden for Stacy. What are the practical constraints? If Stacy tells the true information to the candidates and new employees about the problems at the firm, he might be reprimanded again or even be fired. It may also influence him when seeking a future job. What actions should be taken? Stacy may try to adapt the advanced level job by learning more skills, so that he can avoid making the same mistakes again. He can keep loyal to the firm when he is interviewing the candidates, and remind the new hires some problems privately. He can also make suggestions to the CPA firm.

Friday, September 20, 2019

Distribution And Abundance Of Marine Invertebrates Biology Essay

Distribution And Abundance Of Marine Invertebrates Biology Essay Many marine invertebrates of diverse and varied phyla, have a common reproductive strategy that involves a multi-phase life cycle that occupies two dramatically different environmental habitats. The separate mobile pelagic larval phase and the predominantly sedentary or sessile bottom dwelling phase is linked by a settlement event. Larval forms are usually very different from adult forms. Reproduction involves the eggs and sperm and/ or larvae being released in generally very large numbers into the water column. Here, most of the pelagic larvae are potentially capable of dispersing long distances from parental populations. They develop and grow for a certain period of time before metamorphosing into adults. During their time in the water column, the larvae feed on phytoplankton and small zooplankton, including other larvae. Their small size and abundance also make them susceptible to predation by other larger marine creatures. Their huge numbers probably increase their chances of sur vival. Overall the probability of successful recruitment is low. It used to be thought that this strategy represented an open system where chance settling out of larvae led to distribution and abundance of benthic phase adults governed mainly by post-recruitment effects (Thorson,1950, Caley,1960) Several recent studies on the dispersing larval phase of marine invertebrate life cycles suggest that patterns of larval supply are not the only factor influencing invertebrate population dynamics. It is now thought that the larvae themselves can influence their probability of success. Larval behaviours are responses to two challenges predator evasion and selection of a suitable settlement site. Supply side ecology ( Lewin. 1986) emphasizes the role of recruitment in limiting adult populations and structuring benthic communities. At the end of the dispersal phase, the abundance of larvae at settlement can be highly variable, both spatially and temporally. Variation in settlement can be caus ed by larval mortality and predation rates, transport mechanisms and larval behaviours. Moreover, coupling of larval supply with adult abundance seems also to effect distribution (Hughes et al 2000) The extent to which local larval recruitment depends on production by local adults is not clear and the extent of relative openness of marine benthic invertebrate populations is uncertain.(Strathmann et al, 2002, Swearer et al 2002) However, there seems to be significant planktonic processes in the pre-settlement stage that that influence population dynamics of settlement, recruitment and subsequent adult populations. Habitat selection by planktonic larvae can overcome patterns predicted by patterns of larval supply (Jenkins, 2005). Factors influencing distribution and abundance of species Biotic and abiotic interactions and dynamics within each phase of the life cycle have the potential to influence the distribution and abundance of the adult populations. Adult populations have specific environmental requirements and occupy habitats with particular constraints. These may be physical characteristics such as tidal gradient, exposure, rugosity, habitat complexity, depth. salinity and temperature gradients.There are also biotic factors. A readily available food supply is fundamental but distribution is also influenced by competition and predation. The need for reproduction and dispersal often favours clustering or at least close proximity of adults to ensure fertilization. Dispersal and recruitment of the larval stage ensures the continuance of the species but the role of the planktonic larval stage in invertebrate population dynamics is not yet fully understood. Differences in recruitment vary both both temporally and spatially but the extent that this effect has on adul t abundance and distribution is still a matter of debate (Jenkins, 2005, Pawlik, 1968, Hughes et al, Grosberg and Levitan. 1992 and others). The influences of post settlement density related processes of predation and competition have to be considered in relation to influences effecting the larval stages of the invertebrate. Reproductive strategies influencing dispersal and recruitment A multi-phase life cycle is a reproductive strategy that can offer several advantages for benthic dwelling invertebrates especially those with sessile adult phases such as barnacles and tunicates or sedentary adult phases, such as mussels and crabs. The evolution of a larval stage allows adults with limited movement to disperse their young into new territories. The ability to disperse is an important adaptations of benthic marine invertebrates. The length of time the larvae spend in the water column can be hours days weeks or months depending on the species. Lecithotropic larvae are provided with a source of nutrition to use during their dispersal, usually in the form of a yolk sac, although some lecithotrophic larva can feed many, such as tunicatesare will not, and have to settle before their food source runs out. As a result, these species have short pelagic larval stages and generally do not disperse long distances.(Pawlik, 1986, Pawlik 1992) Planktotrophic development is the most common type of larval development, especially among benthic invertebrates. Many species have relatively long pelagic larval durations. During this time in the water column larvae feed and grow, and many species move through several stages of development. Barnacles, for example, undergo six moults before becoming a ciprid at which stage the stage they search for an appropriate substrate. to settle on (Molenock and Gomez, 1972). This strategy produces the potential of long distances dispersal and colonization of new territorys it also enables species to move away from any habitat that has become non-viable or overcrowded. Larval dispersal, or advection away from the spawning site may decrease competition between the different life stages as larvae use a different food source from the adults. Moreover, filter-feeding adults such as barnacles, are less likely to imbibe their own offspring and other benthic predators are also avoided. A pelagic larval phase that has a long duration is a strategy that could help some species break there parasite cycles. Settlement and recruitment are the initial processes in determining adult population structures. The term settlement is used to describe the transition from a pelagic to a benthic way of life. This is the process where the larvae descend from the water column and take up a permanent abode on the sea bed. Metamorphic changes allow the larvae to acquire the features suitable for their new benthic life style. The settlement process starts with the onset of behaviour patterns associated with a phase of searching for suitable substratum, In the case of sessile invertebrates, this is succeeded by the initiation of permanent attachment to the substratum. This triggers morphogenic changes which culminate in metamorphosis into the juvenile form. Recruitment is generally a reference to newly settled individuals that have survived to a specified size after their settlement (Keough Downes 1982). Variability in recruitment to adult populations is a significant dynamic in the dispersal and abundance of marine invertebrates. The analysis of mechanisms which control settlement and recruitment and of the conditions under which recruitment variation affects adult distribution and abundance is complex but fundamental to understanding population and community variability. Supply side ecology Supply-side ecology is a term coined by Lewin (1986). This way of looking at population dynamics incorporates the potential role that variable larval input and variable recruitment plays in determining the size of local adult populations, Caley et al. 1996, Hughes 1984, 1990, Hughes et al. 2000, Gaines and Roughgarden 1985, Roughgarden et al. 1985) Larval. supply is influenced both by transport mechanisms and larval behaviours. Variation in settlement potential can impact on the distribution and abundance of adult invertebrate populations. Influence of larval supply (or successful recruitment) on population or community structure and its importance relative to other factors. The abundance of larvae in the water column affects the temporal variability of settlement. Post-settlement mortalities can be potentially replaced by new settlement from a plentiful larva supply where benthic mortality is caused by density independent factors (Karlson and Levitan, 1990). Variability in larval supply can be associated with reproductive cycles of adult individuals (Roughgarden et al 1991). Pelagic larval forms are very susceptible to predation by various other marine animals. Rates of larval mortality can affect larval supply for settlement and recruitment. Mortality levels can be reduced by larval behaviour strategies aimed at predator avoidance . This is particularly significant in estuaries which often serve as nursery areas for fish and as a consequence are generally more abundant in predators (Dibacco et al 2001). Avoidance behaviour takes place on both small and large scales. Some larvae avoid predation at a small scale by sinking down the water column when thr eatened by a predator (Zaret and Suffern, 1976). More commonly a general large scale predator avoidance strategy used by many larvae is that of becoming nocturnally active. This limits fish predation as most fishes need light to find and hunt their prey. During the day the larvae are inactive and in shallow waters they remain hidden. Many invertebrate larvae may avoid predators by leaving the immediate coastal zone and developing in the open sea where their are fewer predators. In the open sea, in common with other planktonic species, invertebrate larvae can significantly reduce their risk of predation through diel vertical migrations (Marta-Almeida M, et al 2006) During the day they sink down to in the water colem were there is less light and fewer predators and come up to shallow waters where they feed at night on food such as micro-algae which are abundant in the photic zone. Variable predation at different depths may affect spatial variation of larvae within the water column. Va rying mortality can be caused by retention in the water column for too long. The highest mortality in marine populations occurs during the larval stages, so mortality plays a significant though largely unquantified role in larval dispersal. Abiotic effects such as wind patterns (Mc Quaid Phillips, 2000) currents and other hydrographic factors (Gaines et al 1985, Pineda, 2007) can directly influence larval distribution and supply. as a means of larval transport Larval behaviours responding to local hydrographic features (Jackson 1986) can indirectly influence supply. Larval behaviours by positioning themselves strategically in the water column can utilise or avoid tidal flows or currents. (Gaines et al. 1985, Forward, R.B. Jr, and R.A. Tankersley 2001) This may be important in returning to find the restrictive habitat requirements needed for adult populations. Larvae are capable of. highly discriminative behaviours ,particularly on small scales where larval behaviour can be an important determinant not just of larval distribution and abundance but their behaviour patterns may also influence the subsequent adult distribution and abundance through local variations in settlement and / or recruitment. Although some larvae can extend their survival for a short time if they do not find a suitable place to settle (Gimenez, 2004), their life span as a larva is finite and survival depends ultimately on successful settlement and recruitment. Delay can influence post metamorphic effects and ultimate success. Larvae that have spent too long in the water column may settle and recruit juveniles that have less chance of survival to adults. In this way the influence of the larval stage has bearing on the subsequent adult population. Successful recruitment involves the selection of and often the attatchment to a suitable substrate and subsequent metamorphoses. There are many dangers at this stage. Larvae of shore dwelling species need to avoid becoming stranded by the tide and becoming desiccated. They must find a settlement site at an appropriate tidal height for the requirements of the adult phase and avoid competition. This is a limiting factor for sessile invertebrates space as the larvae need to find space on the habitat where they can settle as well as avoiding predation from adult filter feeders. Overcoming these problems depends on larval behaviours and responses to chemical cues and physical cues such as geo taxis and/or photo taxis. Different species have different triggers (Morse, 1991, Gebauer et al 2004). The interaction of physical processes and biological reactions to chemical cues. are particularly significant on small spacial scales. These interactions represent active selection of micro-sites an d effect both the settlement processes and the abundance of settlement. Chemical cues can be from conspecific individuals (Crisp and Meadows, 1962, Kingsford et al 2002, Pawlick 1986) microbial films (Rodrigues et al.1992) and prey species. Many herbivorous species are induced to settle by presence of crustose algae on which they feed eg abalone (Morse1990 and limpets (Steneck,1982) Barnacle larvae at settlement are influenced by the speed of water flow, contours of the sub-stratum. and increases in light levels (Crisp, 1976). It is thought that some recruitment may take the form of short and episodic pulses (Levin 2006). Recruitment windows, (Pineda,2007) where settlement events take place simultaneously in large numbers, sometimes over wide areas have been identified for some species such as corals, but mechanisms and interactions at work are not understood fully. In open systems like these, degradation of breeding stocks could result in a reduced recruitment to a wider areas.(Hughes et al 2000). Variation in dispersal and the processes and patterns of demographic connections work together to influence patterns of distribution and abundance. Variation in recruitment can also effect the potential survival of the recruits to form adult populations, as numbers of recruits can potentially effect the extent of subsequent biological inter-actions such as predation.(Fairweather, 1988). In this way post-settlement effects can be influenced both by patterns of settlement and environmental factors. Conclusion Understanding the population dynamics of marine invertebrates requires the consideration of the interplay of all stages of the invertebrate life cycle with its environment not only those affecting the adult forms. Larval abundance, mortality, transport mechanisms and behavior before and during settlement are all significant variables that can effect adult populations. The role that multiphase life cycles and their complex inter-relationship with marine ecosystems play in determining population abundance and distribution is not clear. The larval stage of invertebrates has for many years been a largely unknown quantity, but knowledge about the role of larval behaviors is growing. In order to understand the processes by which larvae are dispersed in the water column and to assess recruitment potential, new chemical methods of identifying larval species with similar morphologies using an environmental sampling processor may make it easier to detect, identify and quantify different larval species in situ in the marine environment (Jones et al 2008) Where different behavioural patterns between species evade or take advantage of the general effects of physical oceanographic conditions such as currents or temperature variations, detection, analyses and quantification may further the understaning of the influence this may have on the complexities of settlement and recruitment and their subsequent effects on population abundances and distribution..

Thursday, September 19, 2019

manic depression Essay -- essays research papers

MANIC DEPRESSION Estimates say that about 2 and a half million Americans suffer from manic depressive illness. Also called bipolar disorder, this mental illness involves episodes in which a persons mood alternates between extreme mania and depression. A person may experience pressure and racing thoughts and speech, and often uncontrolled reckless behavior. Two thirds of those who suffer from bipolar illness have numerous episodes of recurrences of alternating phases. Most people suffering from manic depressive illness experience extreme cases of up and Dow emotion. Studies say manic depression is one of the most understudied psychiatric illnesses. Bipolar disorder is much less common than depression. atleast 8 percent of people experience depression within their lives. bipolar disorder affects men and women almost equally, and is most common amongst upper economic classes. 15 percent of people with bipolar disorder commit suicide. research shows that highly creative people such as artists, composers , writers, and poets, show usually high rates of bipolar disorder. Their periods of mania is said to fuel their creativity. Bipolar disorder usually begins in a persons late teens early twenties. Men usually experience mania as the first mood episode, where as women usually experience depression first. episodes of mania and depression usually last from several weeks to several months. In most cases swings between mania and depression occur within days. In other cases a person may experience major depression and minor mania. Mania and depression may also follow patterns of seasons. Mania in the winter and fall and depression in summer and spring. People suffering from bipolar disorder feel indifferent to work and have no desire to do anything constructive. They think slow, concentrate poorly, feel tired, and experience changes, usually an increase in appetite and sleep. They often feel a sense of worthlessness and helplessness. In some cases a person may feel pessimistic about the future and may attempt suicide. a patient may all experience delusions and hallucinations. In the manic phase people feel intensely and inappropriately happy, self important and irritable. During this state a person becomes highly energized and sleeps less, talking in rapid fire speech often going off in all directions. They have inflated confidence and unfounded self esteem. Man... ... symptoms become extreme or dangerous. experts say causes can be fights between spouses or loss of sleep. A patient most likely will still suffer from some symptoms even if they follow the exact order of medicine. This illness has no cure. Doctors also have not figured out what causes bipolar disorder. Allot of patients find comfort in talking to other patients about their illness. This allows the patients to find a common bond with another person. Giving the patient the comfort of knowing someone else is going through the same thing if not worse. hospitals offer many support groups for manic depressive people. Stress is said to be the biggest cause of mania and depression occurances. Therapy is supposed to reduce a persons feeling of stress. Manic depression research as come a long way since it was first discovered. It still remains though one of the most understudied psychiatric disorders. Millions of people a year suffer from this diease. It can result in suicide, drug abuse, and unprotected sex. This illness deserves more attention then it is receiving. I feel we as a nation should address the on going rise of suicides as a cause of one form or another of manic depression.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Essay --

Elie Wiesel was born in Sighet, Transylvania (later known as Romania) on September 30, 1928. Elie focused on Jewish religious studies before being relocated to Nazi death camps in WWII. Wiesel survived; he eventually began to write about his experiences in his memoir Night. He became an activist, orator and teacher. He spoke out against persecution and injustice. People should look at what Elie Wiesel and many other Jews went through just to be able to live in this world. The people living now should be appreciative of everything that is given and more. No one understands such a dreadful experience as the Holocaust without shifting in the way you were before. In Night, a memoir by Elie Wiesel, the author defines his suffering at the hands of Nazis. Taken with his family in 1944, they were directed to Auschwitz to come before the dishonorable selection. There, Elie parted from his mom and sister leaving him with his father who was too busy to spend any time with his son before the camp. Being under the Nazis' control, Elie and his father moved to several camps. The Nazi command â€Å"deprived Elie...of the desire to live..., which murdered his God and soul and turned my dreams to dust† (32). Preceding to the war, Elie lived an extremely spiritual and blameless life. Elie controlled a very strong curiosity in Jewish beliefs. At such a young age, Elie followed the Jewish faith with a vigor unusual for his age; his father kept him grounded in a world of reason. Even as Elie's freedoms vanished, he still maintained a sense of faith as a crutch. This also shows how Elie still was a child at the time, not aware that the Germans could try to eradicate an entire race. Ellie did not have an inkling of the horrors that lay before him and how they... ...ce out of the camp he "Spent his days in a total idleness. And I had but one desire to eat. [He] no longer thought of his father or mother"(107). The war left him crushed for life without any attachments to reality or sympathy for his family; he had cried his last tears. Following the camp, Elie only existed as a body wanting basic necessities without a soul or passion. The Holocaust changed Elie from a religious child to a mindless body who lost all innocence at age when he "Was fifteen years old"(96). The flames of the furnaces and the noose on the necks of fellow prisoners stole that desire from him and all the prisoners leaving empty bodies to work for the Nazi regime. Such horrors forced any man to abandon his passions if he wished to survive to the next day. The effect the war had on the Jews makes the claims of Holocaust deniers incredibly ignorant and cruel.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Cloning :: essays papers

Cloning Cloning is the process of creating a genetic duplicate of an individual. Since the February 1997 announcement of the birth of Dolly, a sheep cloned by Ian Wilmut, cloning research has increased considerably. Cloning humans has recently become much more of a possibility in society than it was years ago. Scientists are on the edge of a huge breakthrough in the field of human cloning, and society must ask itself whether or not it should be allowed. Many arguments can be made for and against human cloning, but since it is unethical and would take away individuality and disrupt social values, the practice of cloning humans is one that government should ban and society should not accept. Proponents of human cloning may argue that it is just a logical and inevitable advance in science research and technology. It is, however, too risky for human subjects. At the present time, the general consensus of the public is against human cloning. (Fitzgerald 37) Within a few years' time, however, the medical possibilities of human cloning may be attractive enough to change public opinion. Research on human cloning would involve huge risks for the initial clones, because any experiments in human cloning would eventually have to be carried out on human beings. Human cloning is unethical because the risks of this practice greatly outweigh the benefits. The technique that produced Dolly the sheep was successful in only 1 of 277 attempts. If this technique were attempted in humans, it would risk miscarriages in the mother and severe developmental problems in the child. Standard medical practice would never allow the use of any drug or device with such little study and without much additional animal research. (National Bioethics Advisory Commission) The actual risks of physical harm to the cloned child cannot be certain without conducting experiments on human beings. This in itself is unethical because no one knows what will happen and the child is in danger because "one does not know what is going to happen, and one is^possibly leading to a child who could be disabled and have developmental difficulties." (Professor John Robertson) Human cloning would violate a person's individuality and take away a child's identity. Cloned children would see themselves not as a person, but as an object that their parents could discard because of imperfection. A family is no longer a genuine family. Children should be valued for who they are, not according to how closely thy meet their parents' expectations. If a child were cloned, his life would already have been lived by another human

Monday, September 16, 2019

Napoleon Bonaparte Heir or Betrayer Essay

Napoleon Bonaparte has been one of the biggest known leaders and highly debated characters. Known for his leadership skills, but debated for the many different interpretations of his actions. Most historians have believed that Napoleon is either an Heir or a Betrayer. It was through his actions on how you can see how Napoleon is considered a betrayer to the French revolution. This is shown through different actions and the way he handled certain situations. The first sign that he was a betrayer against the French revolution was that he was established as an absolute dictator. Also, Napoleons betrayal is portrayed with the unnecessary wars that bankrupted France due to the idea of expanding his universal brotherhood. Lastly, Napoleons actions were considered to be completely contradictory to the French revolution motto of Liberty Equality Fraternity. As you can see through these three arguments, that Napoleon proves that he really is a betrayer to the French revolution. The basis of the French revolution was that the people wanted to get rid of the absolute monarchy that had no interest in serving the 3rd estate. Napoleon on the other hand, did the opposite of what the French revolution wanted. He maintained power, and became an absolute dictator that made all the decisions in his own interest. With all this power, Napoleon showed that he was a betrayer, because he did not do anything for the good of the people, rather he did it for his own interests. One example, is that instead of allowing people to vote, Napoleon established representative institutions that only gave the illusion of democracy because really they had no power. Also, in the beginning of his dictatorship, he established the â€Å"Coup D’Etat† which made himself the first consul which later on allowed him to crown himself Emperor. This can be considered a betrayal because he was crowning himself â€Å"king† in a sense. Clearly, these arguments show how Napoleon, although a great leader, was too focused on the power that he obtained from becoming Emperor and it clouded his decisions causing him to become a betrayer to the French revolution. Another big part of why people consider Napoleon as a betrayer to the French revolution, was his relentless quest for personal glory and his desire to conquer more than he could. Napoleons commitment to make everybody into a brotherhood completely went against what the French Revolution stood for. This is shown in his many unnecessary wars that took place. He started recruiting mass armies for the sole purpose of conquering other lands. Napoleons focus on universal conquest was shown by the year 1812, when almost every country besides Russia, Great Britain, and the Ottoman Empire, were under his control. Another aspect that shows how Napoleon betrayed the French revolution was when he implemented the Continental System, in which he resorted to economic warfare by forbidding his subjects and allies to trade with the English. Thus, further more affecting the already poor economy and worsening ties with England. These actions portray Napoleon as somebody who is entirely set on European domination and showing how his military focus lead his straying away from the idealistic French revolution. The French revolutions motto was Liberty Equality and Fraternity. The French expected Napoleon to honour these sayings and bring back peace, order and to consolidate the political and social conquests of the Revolution. But, Napoleon used other means of establishing a revolution. Unlike the motto, Napoleon used certain things such as censorship, the power of terror, and even execution to establish control. Napoleon to keep control of public opinion, he censored almost everything, and filtered what the people could hear. Also, Napoleon used the aspect of fear to keep people under his control, and he used force to subsidize anybody going against his will, thus showing how he did not follow the motto of the French Revolution. Also when he was in power, he rolled back many of the reforms of the Revolution, including the rights of women and basic protections for civil liberties. He anointed himself emperor and established his family members as hereditary monarchs of sovereign European nations. In this sense, he completely eviscerated the liberal reforms of the revolution. This depicts how Napoleon truly went against the motto of the French Revolution and showed how he truly was not an Heir, rather a betrayer. Napoleon to this very day is still argued as whether he is an heir or a betrayer. But in many cases, he is seen to be a Betrayer to the French revolution. This is shown through different ways, such as his absolute dictatorship and how he uses his total control of power to make decisions for his own interest. This shows how Napoleon became what the French revolution sought out to get rid of with the start of the revolution. Also, with his many attempts at European domination, you can see that Napoleon put too much focus onto wars and campaigns, instead of trying to create equality for everyone. Lastly, the revolution was about liberty and rights, as said in the French revolutions motto. But Napoleon went against that, and denied the peoples liberty, and their rights with things such as censorship and execution. Overall, you clearly see how Napoleon, in many situations, goes against what the French revolution stands for and shows how he really is a betrayer of the revolution.

Excuses, Excuses

Excuses, Excuses Even though some excuses for turning in work late as seen in â€Å"The Dog Ate My Disk, and Other Tales of Woe† by Carolyn Foster Segal, some excuses given are legitimate for turning in late work. Some unforeseeable events, such as traffic accidents, death in the family, weather that causes an evacuation, and a fire are just a few are all events that students can not control, which result in turning in late work. It is Monday morning, students are on their way to the first class period of the day, their paper is due first thing as they walk in the door.Tragedy strikes on their way to school as a mo-torists runs a red light, t-boning the students car and causing a major accident. However the stu-dent could have emailed the assignment to the professor, this professor only accepts copies in pe-rson. The student did not predict the accident he/she would be involved in this morning, or maybe he/she would have left a little later, or a little earlier, or even taken a different route to school that day. Family members getting into an accident could go either way, depending on who the family member is and where they are located.If a distant cousin from four hundred miles away gets into a fender bender, teachers will probably be very skeptical to accept late work. However a mother, father, or immediate family member, gets into an automobile accident could be an acceptable excuse for turning in late work. A death in the family is a very tragic occurrence and could have many different effects on the student and their work they are planning to turn in. Segal states â€Å" What heartless student would lie, wish death on a revered family member, just to avoid a deadline? (461) Hopefully no student would use a death in the family to avoid a deadline. Death is not to be taken lightly, nor used in a demeaning manner. Segal also says, â€Å"What heartless teacher would dare to question a student's grief or veracity? †(461). Hopefully no teacher or professor would call their students out or question that their was a death in their family. Letting the professor know exactly what is going on and when the student will turn in their paper is a proper course of action, to avoid receiving an F for the assignment or incomplete in the class.Nothing is more frightening than having to pack bags and evacuate due to serious and catastrophic weather. Students and teachers, not knowing what to expect when the storm passes, or what damage could come of their campus or surrounding areas. When a storm is a brewing miles away and expecting to hit in the next week, students are not worried about an assignment, they are focused on packing the must haves when evacuating and arriving somewhere out of harms way. Most teachers probably allow students to turn their work in after the storm has passed and once the school opens back up to regular hours.Weather is a unstable force, the storm could hit further away or not be as strong as anticipated, but students do not focus on their school work at this time. Giving them a legitimate excuse for not turning their work in on time, because they were forced to evacuate due to storms and unforeseeable damages that may occur. Fires destroy many homes and buildings each year, leaving the occupants without a roof over their head. In the event of a fire, people are taught not to try and save anything from their houses, dorms, and apartments.Their main goal is to get to safety, and let the fire department do their job at extinguishing the fire. A student that is the victim of a fire, should be allowed to turn their work in late, especially if they have lost most if not all of their things in the fire. Sunday night, the student is putting the finishing touches on their paper due Monday morning, and their computer crashes, not allowing them to save any material to a disc, or thumb drive can be very upsetting. The student arrives in class and tells their professor that the reason they are not t urning their paper in was because their computer crashed the night before.This could happen, and not allow the student adequate time to go to their nearest computer lab or library on campus and redo their paper. This common occurrence with computers and technology could give the students an extension to resubmit their assignment at a later day. This would be at the profess-ors discretion of course, or the professor could ask for proof that the action that did happen, truly did happen. This returns to the question from the death in a family section, just in different words: Would a teacher actually question, why a student is turning their work in late or not.Excuses are thrown around colleges and schools like jokes at a comedy club. Some excuses are just absurd and just a reason for students to get out of doing their assignments; others are legitimate reasons as to why they are not turning their assignment in. The bad excuses make the legitimate excuses seem untrue and just another e xcuse, that students will use to get out of an assignment. Work Cited Segal, Carolyn Foster. â€Å"The Dog Ate My Disk, and Other Tales of Woe† Patterns for College Writing. 12th ed. Ed. Laurie G Kirszner and Stephen R. Mandell. Boston: Bedford, 2012 460-463. Print.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Carrie Chapter Fourteen

‘They will,' she said. ‘I set it up.' it won't even be close. Why do they keep applauding? What's going on in there?' ‘Don't ask me, babe. The school song suddenly roared out, full and strong on the soft May air, and Chris jumped as if stung. A soft gasp of surprise escaped her All rise for Thomas Ewen Hiiiiyyygh. . . ‘Go on,' he said. ‘They're there.' His eyes glowed softly in the dark. The odd half-grin had touched his features. She licked her lips. They both stared at the length of jute cord. We will raise your banners to the skyyyyy ‘Shut up,' she whispered. She was trembling, and he thought that her body had never looked so lush or exciting. When this was over he was going to have her until every other time she'd been had was like two pumps with a fags little finger. He was going on her like a raw cob through butter. ‘No guts, babe?' He leaned forward. ‘I won't pull it for you, babe. It can sit there till bell freezes.' With pride we wear the red and whiiyyyte A sudden smothered sound that might have been a scream came from her mouth, and she leaned forward and pulled violently on the cord with both hands. It came loose with slack for a moment, making her think that Billy had been having her on all this time, that the rope was attached to nothing but thin air. Then it snubbed tight, held for a second, and then came through her palm harshly, leaving a thin burn. she began. The music inside came to a jangling, discordant halt For a moment ragged You continued oblivious, and then they stopped. Then was a beat of silence, and then someone screamed. Silence again. They stared at each other in the dark, frozen by the actual act as thought never could have done. Her very breath turned to glass in her throat. Then, inside, the laughter began. It was ten twenty-five, and the feeling had been getting worse and worse. Sue stood in front of the gas range on one foot, waiting for the milk to begin steaming so she could dump in the Nestle's. Twice she had begun to go upstairs and put on a nightgown and twice she had stopped, drawn for no reason at all to the kitchen window that looked down Brickyard Hill and the spiral of Route 6 that led into town. Now, as the whistle mounted atop the town hall on Main Street suddenly began to shriek into the night, and falling in cycles of panic, she did not evert immediately to the window, but only tamed the heat oft under the milk so it would not burn. The town hall whistle went off every day at twelve noon and that was all, except to call the volunteer fire department during grass-fire season in August and September. It was strictly for major disasters and its sound was dreamy and terrifying in the empty house. She went to the window, but slowly. The shrieking of the whistle rose and fell, rose and fell. Somewhere, horns were beginning to blast, as if for a wedding. She could see her reflection in the darkened glass, lips parted, eyes wide, and then the condensation of her breath obscured it. A memory, half-forgotten, came to her. As children in grammar school, they had practised air-raid drills. When the teacher clapped her hands and said, ‘The town whistle is blowing,' you were supposed to crawl under your desk and put your hands over your head and wait, either for the all-clear or for enemy missiles to blow you to powder. Now, in her mind, as clearly as a leaf pressed in plastic, (the town whistle is blowing) she heard the words clang in her mind Far below, to the left, where the high school parking lot was – the ring of sodium are lamps made it a sure landmark, although the school building itself was invisible in the dark -a spark glowed as if God has struck a flint-and-steel. (that's whew the oil tanks are) The spark hesitated, then bloomed orange. Now you could see the school, and it was on fire. She was already on her way to the closet to get her coat when the first dull, booming explosion shook the floor under her feet and made her mother's china rattle in the cupboards. From We Survived the Black Prom, by Norma Watson (Published in the August, 1980, issue of The Reader's Digest as a ‘Drama in Real Life' article): †¦ and it happened so quickly that no one really knew what was happening. We were all standing and applauding and singing the school song. Then – I was at the usher's table just inside the main doors, looking at the stage – there was a sparkle as the big lights over the stage apron reflected on something metallic. I was standing with Tina Blake and Stella Horan, and I think they saw it, too. All at once there was a huge red splash in the air. Some of it hit the mural and ran in long drips. I knew right away, even before it hit them, that it was blood. Stella Horan thought it was paint, but I had a premonition, just like the time my brother got hit by a hay truck. They were drenched. Carrie got it the worst. She looked exactly like she had been dipped in a bucket of red paint. She just sat there. She never moved. The band that was closest to the stage, Josie and the moonglows, got splattered. The lead guitarist had a white instrument, and it splattered all over it. I say: ‘My God, that's blood!' When I said that, Tina screamed. It was very loud, and it rang out clearly in the auditorium. People had stopped singing and everything was completely quiet. I couldn't move. I was rooted to the spot. I looked up and there were two buckets dangling high over the thrones, swinging and banging together. They were still dripping. All of a sudden they fell, with a lot of loose string paying out behind them. One of them hit Tommy Ross on the head. It made a very loud noise, like a gong. That made someone laugh. I don't know who it was, but it wasn't the way a person laughs when they we something funny and gay. It was raw and hysterical and awful. At the same instant, Carrie opened her eyes wide. That was when they all started laughing. I did too. God help me. It was so †¦ weird. When I was a little girl I had a Walt Disney storybook called Song of the South, and it had that Uncle Remus story about the tarbaby in it. There was a picture of the tarbaby sitting in the middle of the road, looking like one of those old-time Negro minstrels with the blackface and great white eyes. When Carrie opened her eyes it was like that. They were the only part of her that wasn't completely red. And the light had gotten in them and made them glassy. God help me, but she looked for all the world like Eddie Cantor doing that pop-eyed act of his. That was what made people laugh. We couldn't help it. It was one of those things where you laugh or go crazy. Carrie had been the butt of every joke for so long, and we all felt that we were part of something special that night It was as if we were watching a person rejoin the human race, and I for one thanked the Lord for it. And that happened. That horror. And so there was nothing else to do. It was either laugh or cry, and who could bring himself to cry over Carrie after all those years? She just sat there, staring out at them, and the laughter kept swelling, getting louder and louder. People were holding their bellies and doubling up and pointing at her. Tommy was the only one who wasn't looking at her. He was sort of slumped over in his seat as if lied gone to sleep. You couldn't tell he was hurt, though: he was splashed, too bad. And then her face †¦ broke, I don't know how else to describe it. She put her hands up to her face and halfstaggered to her feet. She almost got tangled in her own feet and fell over, and that made people laugh even more. Then she sort of †¦ hopped off the stage. It was like watching a big red frog hopping off a lily pad. She almost fell again, but kept on her feet. Miss Desjardin came running over to her, and she wasn't laughing any more. She was holding out her arms to her. But then she veered off and hit the wall beside the stage – It was the strangest thing. She didn't stumble or anything. It was as if someone had pushed her, but there was no one there. Carrie ran through the crowd with her hands clutching her face, and somebody put his foot out. I don't know who it was, but she went sprawling on her face. leaving a long red streak on the floor. And she said, ‘Ooof!' I remember that. It made me laugh even harder, hearing Carrie say Oof like that. She started to crawl along the floor and then she got up and ran out. She ran right past me. You could smell the blood. It smelled like something sick and rotted. She went down the stairs two at a time and then out the doors. And was gone. The laughter just sort of faded off, a little at a time. Some people were still hitching and snorting. Lennie Brock had taken out a big white handkerchief and was wiping his eyes. Sally McManus looked all white, like she was going to throw up, but she was still giggling and she couldn't seem to stop. Billy Bosnan was just standing there with his little conductor's stick in his hand and shaking his head. Mr Lublin was sitting by Miss Desjardin and calling for a Kleenex. She had a bloody nose. You have to understand that all this happened in no more than two minutes. Nobody could put it all together. We were stunned. Some of them were wandering around, talking a little, but not much. Helen Shyres burst into tears, and that made some of the others start up. Then someone yelled: ‘Call a doctor! Hey, call a doctor quick!' It was Josie Vreck. He was up on the stage, kneeling by Tommy Ross, and his face was white as paper. He tried to pick him up, and the throne fell over and Tommy rolled on to the floor. Nobody moved. They were all just staring. I felt like I was frozen in ice. My God, was all I could think. My God, my God, my God. And then this other thought crept in, and it was as if it wasn't my own at all. I was thinking about Carrie. And about God. It was all twisted up together, and it was awful. Stella looked over at me and said: ‘Carrie's back.' And I said: ‘Yea, that's right.' The lobby doors all slammed shut. The sound was like hands clapping. Somebody in the back screamed, and that started the stampede. They ran for the doors in a rush. I just stood there, not believing it. And when I looked, just before the first of them got there and started to push, I saw Carrie looking in, her face all smeared, like an Indian with war paint on. She was smiling. They were pushing at the doors, hammering on them, but they wouldn't budge. As more of them crowded up to them, I could see the first ones to get there being battered against. them, grunting and wheezing. They wouldn't open, and those doors are never locked. It's a state law. Mr Stephens and Mr Lublin waded in, and began to pull them away, grabbing jackets, shorts, anything. They were all screaming and burrowing like cattle. Mr Stephens slapped a couple of girls and punched Vic Mooney in the eye. They were yelling for them to go out the back fire doors. Some did. Those were the ones who lived. That's when it started to rain †¦ at least, that's what I thought it was at first. There was water falling all over the place. I looked up and all the sprinklers were on, all over the gym. Water was hitting the basketball court and splashing. Josie Vreck was yelling for the guys in his band to turn off the electric amps and mikes quick, but they were all gone. He jumped down from the stage. The panic at the doors stopped. People backed away, looking up at the ceiling. I heard somebody – Don Farnham, I think-say: ‘This is gonna wreck the basketball court.' A few other people started to go over and look at Tommy Ross. All at once I knew I wanted to get out of there. I took Tina Blake's hand and said, ‘Let's run. Quick.' To get to the fire doors, you had to go down a short corridor to the left of the stage. There were sprinklers there too, but they weren't on. And the doors were open – I could see a few people running out. But most of them were just standing around in little groups, blinking at each other. Some of them were looking at the smear of blood where Carrie fell down, the water was washing it away. I took Tina's hand and started to pull her toward the EXIT sign. At that same instant there was a huge flash of fight, a scream, and a horrible feedback whine. I looked around and saw Josie Vreck holding on to one of the mike stands. He couldn't let go. His eyes were bugging out and his hair was on end and it looked like he was dancing. His feet were sliding around in the water and smoke started to come out of his shirt. He fell over on one of the amps – they were big ones, five or six feet high – and it fell into the water. The feedback went up to a scream that was head-splitting, and then there was another sizzling flash and it stopped. Josie's shirt was on fire. ‘Run!' Tina yelled at me. ‘Come on, Norma, Please!' We ran out into the hallway, and something exploded backstage – the main power switches, I guess. For just a second I looked back. You could see right out on to the stage, where Tommy's body was, because the curtain was up. All the heavy light cables were in the air, flowing and jerking and writhing like snakes out of an Indian fakir's basket. Then one of them pulled in two. There was a violent flash when it hit the water, and then everybody was screaming at once. Then we were out the door and running across the parking lot. I think I was screaming. I don't remember very well. I don't remember anything very well after they started screaming. After those high-voltage cables hit that water-covered floor †¦ For Tommy Ross, age eighteen, the end came swiftly and mercifully and almost without pain. He was never even aware that something of importance was happening. There was a clanging, clashing noise that he associated momentarily with (there go the milk buckets) a childhood memory of his Uncle Galen's farm and then with (somebody dropped something) the band below him. He caught a glimpse of Josie Vreck looking over his head (what have i got a halo or something) and then the quarter-full bucket of blood struck him. The raised lip along the bottom of the rim struck him on top of the head and (hey that hurt) he went swiftly down into unconsciousness. He was still sprawled on the stage when the fire originating in the electrical equipment of Josie and the Moonglows spread to the mural of the Venetian boatman, and then to the rat warren of old uniforms, books, and papers backstage and overhead. He was dead when the oil tank exploded a half hour later. From the New England AP ticker, 10:46 P.M.: CHAMBERLAIN, MAINE (AP) A FIRE IS RAGING OUT OF CONTROL AT EWEN (U-WIN) CONSOLIDATED HIGH SCHOOL AT THIS TIME. A SCHOOL DANCE WAS IN PROGRESS AT THE TIME OF THE OUTBREAK WHICH IS BELIEVED TO HAVE BEENELECTRICAL IN ORIGIN. WITNESSES SAY THAT THE SCHOOL'S SPRINKLER SYSTEM WENT ON WITHOUT WARNING, CAUSING A SHORT-CIRCUIT IN THE EQUIPMENT OF A ROCK BAND. SOME WITNESSES ALSO REPORT BREAKS IN MAIN POWER CABLES. IT IS BELIEVED THAT AS MANY AS ONE HUNDRED AND TEN PERSONS MAY BE TRAPPED IN THE BLAZING SCHOOL GYMNASIUM. FIRE FIGHTING EQUIPMENT FROM THE NEIGHBOURING TOWNS OF WESTOVER, MOTTON, AND LEWISTON HAVE REPORTEDLY RECEIVED REQUESTS FOR ASSISTANCE AND ARE NOW OR SHORTLY WILL BE EN ROUTE. AS YET, NO CASUALTIES HAVE BEEN REPORTED. ENDS. 10:46 Pm MAY 27 6904D AP From the New England AP ticker, 11:22 P.M. URGENT CHAMBERLAIN, MAINE (AP) A TREMENDOUS EXPLOSION HAS ROCKED THOMAS EWIN (U-WIN) CONSOLIDATED HIGH SCHOOL IN THE SMALL MAINE TOWN OF CHAMBERLAIN. THREE CHAMBERLAIN FIRE TRUCKS, DISPATCHED EARLIER TO FIGHT A BLAZE AT THE GYMNASIUM WHERE A SCHOOL PROM WAS TAKING PLACE, HAVE ARRIVED TO NO AVAIL. ALL FIRE HYDRANTS IN THE AREA HAVE BEEN VANDALIZED, AND WATER PRESSURE FROM CITY MAINS IN THE AREA FROM SPRING STREET TO GRASS PLAZA IS REPORTED TO BE NIL. ONE FIRE OFFICIAL SAID. ‘THE DAMN THINGS WERE STRIPPED OF THEIR NOZZLES, THEY MUST HAVE SPOUTED LIKE GUSHERS WHILE THOSE KIDS WERE BURNING.' THREE BODIES HAVE BEEN RECOVERED SO FAR. ONE HAS BEEN IDENTIFIED AS THOMAS B. MEARS, A CHAMBERLAIN FIREMAN. THE TWO OTHERS WERE APPARENT PROM GOERS. THREE MORE CHAMBERLAIN FIREMEN HAVE BEEN TAKEN TO MOTTON RECEIVING HOSPITAL SUFFERING FROM MINOR BURNS AND SMOKE INHALATION. IT IS BELIEVED THAT THE EXPLOSION OCCURRED WHEN THE FIRE REACHED THE SCHOOL'S FUEL-OIL TANKS, WHICH ARE SITUATED NEAR THE GYMNASIUM. THE FIRE ITSELF IS BE LIEVED TO HAVE STARTED IN POORLY INSULATED ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT FOLLOWING A SPRINKLER SYSTEM MALFUNCTION. ENDS. 11:22 PM MAY 27 70119E AP Sue had only a driver's permit, but she took the keys to her mother's car from the pegboard beside the refrigerator and ran to the garage. The kitchen clock read exactly 11:00. She flooded the car on her first try, and forced herself to wait before trying again. This time the motor coughed and caught, and she roared out of the garage heedlessly, dinging one fender. She turned around, and the rear wheels splurted gravel. Her mother's '77 Plymouth swerved on to the road, almost fishtailing on to the shoulder and making her feel sick to her stomach. It was only at this point that she realized she was moaning deep in her throat, like an animal in a trap. She did not pause at the stop sign that marked the intersection of Route 6 and the Back Chamberlain Road. Fire sirens filled the night in the cast, where Chamberlain bordered Westover, and from the south behind herMotton. She was almost at the base of the hill when the school exploded. She jammed on the power brakes with both feet and was thrown into the steering wheel like a rag doll. The tyres wailed on the pavement. Somehow she fumbled the door open and was out, shading her eyes against the glare. A gout of flame had ripped skyward, trailing a nimbus of fluttering steel roof panels, wood, and paper. The smell was thick and oily. Main Street was lit as if by a flashgun. In that terrible hallway between seconds, she saw that the entire gymnasium wing of Ewen High was a gutted, flaming ruin. Concussion struck a moment later, knocking her backwards. Road litter blew past her on a sudden and tremendous rush, along with a blast of warm air that reminded her fleetingly of (the smell of subways) a trip she had taken to Boston the year before. The windows of Bill's Home Drugstore and the Kelly Fruit Company jingled and fell inward. She had fallen on her side, and the fire lit the street with hellish noonday. What happened next happened in slow motion as her mind ran steadily onward (dead are they all dead carrie why think carrie) at its own clip. Cars were rushing toward the scene, and some people were running in robes, nightshorts, pyjamas. She saw a man come out of the front door of Chamberlain's combined police station and courthouse. He was moving slowly. The cars were moving slowly. Even the people running were moving slowly. She saw the man on the police-station steps cup his hands around his mouth and scream something; unclear' over the shrieking town whistle, the fire sirens, the monster-mouth of fire. Sounded like: ‘Heyret! Don't hey that ass!' The street was all wet down there. The light danced on the water' Down by Teddy's Amoco station. ‘-hey, that's-‘ And then the world exploded. From the sworn testimony of Thomas K. Quillan, taken before The State Investigatory Board of Maine in connection with the events of May 27-28 in Chamberlain, Maine (abridged version which follows is from Black Prom: The White Commission Report, Signet Books: New York, 1980): Q. Mr Quillan, are you a resident of Chamberlain? A. Yes.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Curriculum Landscape In Singapore Education Essay

The course of study landscape in Singapore has been undergoing important alterations late. It has witnessed about 15 old ages of course of study reform, both structural and curricular. Recently, there is a motion toward school based course of study development that can be seen as a effect of the execution of assorted enterprises on instruction launched increasingly since the mid-1990. The first article negotiations about furthering school based course of study development in the context of new educational enterprises in Singapore. The alterations in course of study besides attributed to Singapore ‘s historical context and colonial intercessions. Further enterprises have besides followed by the opportunity to develop and offer new topics in the normal faculty members and normal proficient watercourse. In the context of Singapore, School-Based Curriculum Development ( SBCD ) scope from single instructors accommodating and construing bing course of study, to whole staff working to gether in create course of study with inputs coming from pupils the school direction ( Singapore Ministry of Education, 2000 ) . School-Based Curriculum Development ( SBCD ) viewed course of study development as built-in portion of professional individualities of instructors enables educational establishments to be more antiphonal to the educational demands and involvements of their pupils every bit good as their community. It can besides be disputing for every instructors because the result does non ever face with the involvements and demands of school or pupil communities. School-based course of study development has concrete procedures, rules and patterns abreast with the current context for Singapore, and the chances and benefits it presents for school development procedure ( Marsh, 2000 ) . The 2nd article tackles tensenesss in an Ability-driven instruction. Ability-driven instruction can be achieved with greater diverseness and pick in the educational landscape ; and the greater liberty and invention at the school degree. Harmonizing to the article, instructors are being exalted to learn less, larn more so as to promote their pupils to larn more actively and independently. Ability-driven instruction has given accent by the MOE to implement the diverseness and pick in the educational landscape and promote schools to travel towards invention. Ability-driven instruction situates within the decentralized model in Singapore which strengthen democracy by conveying the decision-making procedure closer to schools, instructors and pupils. Under the model, the school direction is given more power in determination devising that the instructors and pupils. It besides promotes school based development, rationalisation, efficiency and invention by supplying a assortment of instructi on chances and picks to pupils. Tensions in Ability-Driven Education ( ADE ) includes four major constituents ; diverseness versus conformance which is the move towards greater diverseness of types of schools and educational plan balanced by uniformity and standardisation, the 2nd is autonomy versus control which policy enterprises are introduced but execution and answerability are left as local responsibilities, thirdly, the tenseness between invention and conservativism which school leaders have to take enterprises to be a function theoretical account of invention while bring forthing good academic consequences in an scrutiny driven environment and in conclusion, equity and elitism which straight hit the ADE for back uping rule of meritocracy where every endowment and abilities of kid is recognized. These inclinations are possibly for school leaders to exert their liberty by puting in countries that promise the greatest mensurable return like pulling gifted pupils to fall in the school activities ( Singapore Mini stry of Education, 2000 ) . The two articles summarized the update on educational enterprises in Singapore. The intent of these documents is to supply province and local pedagogues with complete information and apprehension of the steps used in modern-day challenges in acquisition and instructors issues-their restrictions, strengths and current usage in Torahs, policies and patterns. The documents clearly show a critical nexus between effectual learning method and pupils ‘ academic accomplishment. Many surveies point to outcomes that show that methods of acquisition and course of study development contribute more to their pupils ‘ academic growing and can consistently explicate the considerable fluctuation in instructors ‘ accomplishments for advancing pupil larning. Pinpointing the method and course of study leads to certain issues that have a greater impact on pupil public presentation is a affair of great urgency in the state that struggles with educating all the kids every bit. The primary in these documents focused on the issues and challenges in the development of curricular enterprises and modern-day acquisition against tensenesss, hinderances and national criterions. It besides provides persons with worthwhile information sing the standard makings of schools, instructors and pupils in run intoing their educational and preparation demands. The documents set some illustrations on a believable manner for the establishments, spouse organisations and the wider community by lending thoughts to valid, dependable, operable, just and just judgements through different surveies and researches administered through pen and paper scrutinies, unwritten inquiring, practical trials, computing machine assisted trials, or any other agencies ( Marsh, 2000 ) .( B ) Presents a critical analysis of the position ( s )In recent old ages, educational development has received a batch of attending from school leader, instructors, pupils, and parents in how schools remain accountab le for pupil accomplishment. The present push in acquisition is to develop independent and autonomous scholars. This is true non merely to basic topics but to other survey as good. Thus, whereas course of study development and ego directed learning emphasiss task-based methodological analysis that calls for the scholars to get acquisition by developing their ain resources and larning penchants, underscore constructivism that emphasizes the active and constructive function of instructors and scholars in the acquisition procedure ( Marsh, 2000 ) . To turn to this issues and challenges, the school leaders and instructors should seek to update the course of study and method of determination devising and acquisition processs. The documents discussed all about course of study development and educational issues and challenges in larning but they besides need to find the factors and elements necessary to formalize the importance and effectivity of these processs in larning procedure. Its chief involvement is to happen out the effectual manner of effectual determination devising and learning procedure. This undertaking is referred to as pieces of schoolroom work which involved the school leaders, instructors and pupils in comprehending, manipulating, bring forthing or interacting in the mark objectives where attending is chiefly focused on intending instead than on signifier ( Rudduck, 1987 ) . The paper besides presented the turning involvement in better understanding what constitutes effectual course of study in learning pattern, coupled with its power to leverage educational betterment that presents a challenge and chance for policymakers to turn to how to expeditiously and faithfully step instructor public presentation. The function of course of study development and autonomous acquisition must come up as a good utilised resource that might keep promise as a tool to advance school leaders ‘ ability, teacher professional growing and pupils ‘ effectivity in the acquisition ( Sheingold, 2000 ) . In this paper, School-based course of study development ( SBCD ) has an intended aim in current reform in instruction in Singapore brought different issues and challenges to educational patterns at assorted school degrees. While confronting the freshly reform demand on Curriculum Guidelines and execution of the school-based course of study development thought, the development must be an pressing demand for schools. It is necessary to measure the policy and issue options sing development of school-based course of study. It besides examines the system ‘ in educational and professional preparedness and assurance in developing independent school course of study. Based on the analysis of informations collected, these documents presents initial findings and premises and jobs embedded in the recent development in school-based course of study in Singapore. Additionally, the 2nd paper has the chief aim of understanding the challenges and issues sing Ability-driven instruction ( ADE ) th at provides more chances and tracts for pupils in Singapore to promote and leverage pupils in remaining in school for work force readying. But this paper lacks on the some chief points such as methods on how ADE are efficaciously implemented on the land. It simply discussed and addressed different tensenesss and outlooks played by different functions played by the school leaders, instructors and pupils. In this circumstance, societal organisations and community are needed critically to work with these invention, enterprises and pupils to put realistic educational marks with an aim of raising outlooks. It should besides supply a clearer sight of the available tracts that can leverage them on accomplishing higher educational excellence ( Monteith, 2004 ) . This might besides steer school leaders and community in their determination – devising. These subjects suggests inventions and issues including challenges that will be utile for school leaders, instructors, policy shapers, and other stakeholders in instruction who wish to derive a deeper apprehension of the rules and procedures of acquisition, and set these into pattern. Such a clime promotes diverseness and invention, and furthering uniformity and conservativism as school prefer to introduce from what has worked in the yesteryear ( Elmore, 2004 ) . It is deserving analyzing subject. It would be fruitful for the school leaders and instructors every bit good as for pupils. This article is important as the consequences of this survey are applicable to the promotion of the construct of educational reform in different manners of learning based on the policy and current tendencies and provides extra information for understanding the course of study development and appraisal.SuggestsA ways in which the key issues present new thought, chances and challenges to the Singapore school course of study. PleaseA appendA the articles to your critique paper.The deduction of these recommendations is that the readers would be able to measure and place ways in which the key issues present new thought, chances and challenges to the Singapore school course of study and to better the acquisition procedure in general. It will profit the instruction through effectual acquisition and evaluating procedures. Classroom-based rating and appraisal can be really effectual in mensurating how a scholar responds to the new thought, chances and educational ends. When making determinations about larning procedure, the school leaders and teacher must take into consideration on how these variables would impact the procedure scholars take in to learning. In research by Fallows & A ; Bhanot ( 2005 ) they reiterated a cardinal determination on the significance of educational patterns that most scholars can take to take either different attack to their thought and acquisition. A instructor can be one of the most indispensable influences on which attack they take. If these undertakings will be successful, they will ease pupils to travel beyond memorisation and acquisition. Similarly, if a undertaking of course of study emphasizes the apprehension of standard rules, so higher attacks to larn can be achieved The school-based course of study development presented in the article must obtained important information to pedagogues based on researches and surveies to help them in their instruction and learning duty. It is knowing for the instructors and school leaders that they should larn every bit much as possible about larning methods and patterns so as to find their public presentation and effectivity as pedagogues. It should supply valuable information to pupils particularly they would be able to obtain information about what is larning manners they utilized in the schoolroom and how each course of study larning procedure affects their satisfaction. Teachers should besides understand what are the pupil ‘s demands and which assessment process best satisfy the demands of pupils. The applications of these inventions and methods provide a really interesting position from which the acquisition procedure can be better understood. It presents a profound, new manner of looking at learning a nd larning – 1 that is at the head of progressive educational thought ( Rudduck, 1987 ) . Furthermore, one of the most dramatic alterations in the last decennaries in the universe of instructions has been the unbelievable progress in engineering. Increased public presentation and velocity have been matched by worsening costs, therefore enabling more and more schools to hold entree to these new engineerings ( Goodland, 1994 ) . With the addition in entree to these new engineerings, pedagogues must hold had chances to research different ways of believing to learn and design direction through facilitation of new course of study development and larning methods ( Elmore, 2004 ) . Bettering and progressing the quality of instruction and acquisition is one of the tendencies and critical issues in educational scenes, particularly during the enlargement of instruction. Singapore ‘s course of study must hold a really powerful and effectual tool for spread outing chances in instruction, either non-formal or formal. It besides applicable to antecedently populations in rural cou ntries and scattered constituencies, geopolitical, cultural or cultural groups which are excluded traditionally from instruction because of societal or cultural grounds such as, adult females and misss, cultural minorities, disabled individual, and the older population groups ( Monteith, 2004 ) .

Friday, September 13, 2019

Collectivism in the Arab culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Collectivism in the Arab culture - Essay Example Comparison of Arab and Japanese culture with American culture The Arab culture is predominantly controlled by Islamic influences, Muslims comprising more than 90 per cent of the Arab population. Businesses close at the time of prayers, and there is no room for non-Islamic principles of business like investment on interest. Women have not been allowed to drive in Saudi Arabia for a long time. Workplace is extremely sensitive to gender. American culture is democratic without the domination of one religion. Business norms are established according to market’s interests instead of religious teachings. Women are as involved in the work as are men, and there is liberty of expression. Japanese society is homogenous like the Arabic societies whereas American society is heterogeneous. Arabic society is divided between the rich and the poor. The middle class is non-existent in the Arabic culture whereas most of the population in both Japanese and American societies belongs to middle cla ss. In addition, business norms in Japan are similar to those in America. Hence, of the Arab and Japanese culture, the latter is closer to the culture of America.

Thursday, September 12, 2019

Digital Marketing Case Study 4 Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Digital Marketing 4 - Case Study Example Their lifestyle also denotes a proper work-life balance. As per the demographic segmentation, there is increased percentage of middle age group individuals in UK market. Poverty level is considerably low in UK market due to economic stability in the geographical region. Cookery and textile business is utilizing online platform to communicate with target audience (Bea’s Handmade, 2014). Expert classes are designed for students along with production of unique textiles for UK consumer market segment. However majority percentage belongs to middle income group segment and this requires proper designing of communication strategy. Technological developments in UK have been able to transform its business environment. UK government is actively involved in lump sum investment towards research and development activities. Funds of  £4 billion have been allocated in R&D sector. Key developments have been mainly in communication and internet segment. The rapid change of broadband diffusio n has enhanced growth of internet and mobile communications. Technological development has also encouraged transfer of high street shops to online platform. This aspect has been incorporated in the marketing strategy of cookery and textile business. Online platform such as Facebook, Twitter, etc., is being utilized by the firm to promote products and interact with customer base (UK Parliament, 2015). Governmental support towards developing new communication channels shall be an opportunity for the business in future years. As per the analysis on income distribution in UK market, majority of population belongs to middle income group segment. This might negatively affect Becky’s business to certain extent since individuals would not have high disposable income to be spent on cookery classes or handmade products. Positive impact on the business shall be in the form of governmental support to promote textile products. Culture of UK denotes a proper work-life balance,

Wednesday, September 11, 2019

Discussion - MKT 571 - Week 7 Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Discussion - MKT 571 - Week 7 - Assignment Example General Motors, the worlds largest vehicle manufacturer, was founded in 1908.It designs, manufacturers and markets vehicles worldwide. In 1998, the company generated over 160 billion in revenue on global operations. The vehicles are sold in almost 180 countries and the Company has manufacturing operations 50 countries and more. The company has employees about 390,000 worldwide. One of the key reasons for this company’s success is the implementation of General Motors Trade Xchange. This is the company’s virtual Internet community, its suppliers and customers, allowing them to carry out business dealings with speed and proficiency. This was followed by the inclusion of i2 Technologies. i2 would provide supply chain organization services and business process capability to General Motors Trade Xchange. i2s solutions help trading partners cooperate more efficiently and enhance receptiveness to customers (Pauline 48). They also are expected to cut supply chain costs and expan d manufacturing efficacies and reduce stocks. The services are anticipated to enable GM Trade Xchange to increase elasticity for better order-to-delivery. . Thus much of its success is attributed to use of e-commerce and also brand