Saturday, August 31, 2019

Hardness of Water

INTRODUCTION: WHAT IS HARDNESS OF WATER:It is when water passes through or over deposit such as limestone; the level of Ca ²Ã¢  »and Mg ²Ã¢  ºand HCOâ‚Æ' ions present in the water can greatly increase and cause the water to be classified as hard water. This term results from the fact that cation and magnesium ions in water combine with soap molecules, making it hard to get suds. High level of water ion such as Ca ²Ã¢  » and Mg ²Ã¢  ºÃ‚  can cause scaly deposits in plumbing appliances & boilers.These two ions also combine chemically with soap molecules resulting in decreased cleansing. The American water works Association indicates that the ideal quality water should not contain more than 80mg/l of total hardness as CaCOâ‚Æ'. High levels of total hardness are not considered a health concern. There are two types of Hardness:Temporary hardness: this is due to the presence of bicorbonates of calcium and magnesium. It can be easily removed by boiling. Permanent hardness: this is due to the presence of chlorides & sulphate of calcium & magnesium. This type of hardness cannot be removed by boiling.MOTIVATIONI was bothered that the water in Ilara community doesn’t combine easily with soap leading to excessive consumption of WATER.ENVIRONMENTAL SIGNIFICANCE:Scales are formed as inner coating of the pipelines prevents corrosion Absolute soft waters are corrosive and dissolve metalsMore causes of cardio vascular diseases are reported in soft water areas Hard water is useful to growth of children due to the presence of calcium Hard water cause excessive consumption of soap used for cleaning purpose, sodium soaps react with multivalent metallic cations to form a precipitate, thereby lose their surfactant properties. Lathering doesn’t take place until all hardness ions precipitate out.APPARATUS Conical Flask {250ml} Burette with retort stand Beaker Wash bottles Standard flask PipettesMETHOD Simple titration methodREAGENTS Ammonium chloride Amm onium hydroxide Ilara-Mokin water {Hâ‚‚O} Magnesium sulphate Erichrome black T EDTA (Disodium salt).PREPARATION OF REAGENTS 1. Standard solution of EDTAThe usual reagent is the disodium salt, which is a dehydrate, Mr=372.24; it is available in sufficiently pure form to be used as a primary standard for most purposes. If necessary, it may be dried at 80 ° for four days to remove a small percentage of water that may have been absorbed. The solution should be stored in plastic containers rather than glass bottles. The solution is stable but if stored in glass bottles (particularly if the glass is new), the concentration of a dilute solution will decrease appreciably with time as metal ions are extracted out of the glass. To prepare 2 1 of the reagent, dissolve 7.44g of the salt in enough deionized water to make exactly 2 1 of solution. 2. Buffer solution(pH 10)Add 17.5g of ammonium chloride to 142cm ³ of ammonium chloride to 142cm ³ of 0.88 ammonia solution and make up to 25 0cm ³ with deionized water. 3. Eriochrome Black T indicatorThis indicator can be purchased as a powder. The solid is hygroscopic, and so must be stored in a tightly stoppered container.EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE (testing of the Ilara-mokin water) We Pipetted 200ml of the water sample and transfer it to a clean 250ml conical flask. We Added 2ml of Ammonia buffer solution to the water sample so that the pH will be maintained between 9 & 10. We added few drops of EBT indicator to the conical flask and the sample turns to wine red in color. Before we started the titration; we rinsed the burette with few ml of EDTA  then Filled the burette with 0.02m EDTA solution & adjusted to zero then fixed it in retort stand. We titrated the sample against the EDTA solution in the burette till all calcium and magnesium ions present in the sample reacted with the EDTA.The appearance of blue color indicated that all Ca and Mg ions were complex with EDTA and forms a metal EDTA complex. i.e. the end poin t of the titration We Noted down the burette reading and repeated titration two more times.RESULT OF THE EXPERIMENTSAMPLE A FINAL READINNGS 1.50 1.40 1.40 INITIAL READINGS 0.00 0.00 0.00 TITRE VALUES 1.50 1.40 1.40Average titre value= 1.50 +1.40+1.40 =4.3 3 3  =1.43cm ³Ã‚  =1.43 x 20= 28.6 cm ³SAMPLE B FINAL READINGS 2.90 3.10 2.90 INITIAL READINGS 0.00 0.00 0.00 TITRE VALUES 2.90 3.10 2.90Average titre value=2.90+3.10+2.90 = 8.90 3 3  =2.97cm ³Ã‚  =2.97 x 20= 59.4cm ³

Friday, August 30, 2019

Putting Global Warming on Ice Essay

What makes the earth’s temperature rise and fall? Do greenhouse gases block solar heat from leaving the earth, or is it only a product of solar activity? Many people have theorized on what causes temperatures to change. A catch phrase named Global Warming came to popularity. Environmentalists from all walks of life joined the ‘global warming’ fight. According to Thomas O’Connell the global warming debate wasn’t accepted in the 60’s and 70’s when he studied it. It only became popular recently in the 90’s. Everyone believed that humans were causing a catastrophe by punching a whole into an ‘ozone layer’ in the sky, letting harmful rays of sun in. People fought to shutdown plants in order to stop the emissions of carbon dioxide and other ‘greenhouse gases’. Everyone believed the global warming claims coming from senators and environmentalists. Today in the 21st century, science has stepped up to disprove the common myths of global warming. Many of the theories and claims of global warming are easily disproved with science. Science is the only tool that can be used to tell whether theories are fact or fiction. The first issue of global warming is the recent Kyoto Protocol, an international treaty designed to cut greenhouse emissions from successful countries. The international Kyoto protocol has been in debate for many years. The Kyoto protocol is an international treaty to reduce developed country’s greenhouse emissions, specifically carbon dioxide, to 7% below their 1990 levels. As President Bush came to office he refused the U.S.’s involvement in the treaty. President Bush wasn’t even the man that killed the idea for the U.S. (National Center 2). A bill, stating that the U.S. wouldn’t ratify any climate treaty that would harm the United States economically and would have no consequences for developing or â€Å"3rd World† countries, was passed with a unanimous 95-0 vote by the senate before President Bush was elected (National Center 2). The treaty isn’t about global warming. It was designed in order to transfer success from developed nations like the U.S. to developing or struggling countries (Tuccille 2). Research declares that China, India, and Brazil who are not affected by the Kyoto Protocol will increase their CO2 emissions by 16% more than the United States even without  the Protocol in effect (National Center 3). Proponents of the protocol confessed that the treaty â€Å"would not have the beneficial environmental impacts advertised† and that â€Å"the costs of implementation would be much higher than the public had been told† (National Center 1). U.S. economy would suffer if we agreed to partake in the Kyoto scheme. Gasoline prices would increase by as much as 66 cents per gallon, electrical costs would also increase up to 80%, energy intensive products such as chemicals, steel, paper, and cars would rise in price by as much as 15%. (National Center 2). â€Å"The economy of the USA would be devastated,† states Thomas O’Connell. The minority income would be lowered by about 10%, 864,000 African Americans as well as 511,000 Hispanics would be unemplo yed (National Center 2). Oil and fuel used for farming would be taxed or restricted causing in a higher cost of producing and lower profits of products including corn, soybeans, wheat, cotton, hogs, and milk (Heartland Institute 2 and 3). Businesses taxed by the government for their emissions would result in raising costs for their consumers (Heartland Institute 3). New regulations would be implemented for automobiles making carpooling mandatory and would penalize owners of trucks and sports cars. The average household income would even drop by about $2,700 (Heartland Institute 2). Even the unbiased and credible Time magazine quoted, â€Å"the campaign against global warming seemed to be over before it even started† referring to the Kyoto Protocol (Tuccille 1). Are we prepared to â€Å"disappear from the map† in order to prevent 1 degree Celsius of warming for the next Century? One of the hot issues on global warming is that humankind has had something to do with the temperature. Man-made emissions such as carbon dioxide have been claimed to cause global temperatures to increase over the years. Ever since the industrial revolution in the 1940’s man has continued to emit gases such as CO2 into the air. Many people claim that CO2 is what blocks heat from escaping the atmosphere. They also claim that mankind has poked a hole in something called the â€Å"ozone layer†, a protective layer above the atmosphere that keeps harmful UV radiation out, which lets more solar rays in. How convenient. The fact is that 98% of these â€Å"greenhouse gases† are natural to the earth. Man has not emitted them and they are not pollutants. They are mostly water vapors and clouds (Zipperer 2). Does that sound dangerous to you? The earth  has even cut down on the rate of carbon dioxide emissions from the years 1973-1990 (Lindzen 1 and 2). Even if we did have a lot of CO2 in the air evidently the effects wouldn’t be catastrophic. In the past the atmosphere has had much more amounts of CO2 in it before without significant increases in temperature (Lindzen 4). Richard Lindzen, a professor of meteorology at MIT, claims that a doubling of CO2 in the earth’s atmosphere would only result in a 1 degree Celsius increase in global temperature (National Center 3). Another greenhouse gas is methane. Methane is more harmful than CO2 but will not increase significantly for another 100 years if it continues at its current rate (Michaels 1). Many credible experts in the field of science have agreed that man is not responsible. Over 17,000 scientists from all over the world have signed a petition declaring that â€Å"there is no convincing scientific evidence that human release of carbon dioxide, methane, or other greenhouse gases is causing or will, in the foreseeable future, cause catastrophic heating of the earth’s atmosphere and disruption of the earth’s climate† (Heartland Institute 5). Even if there were significant cases of warming global temperatures the effects wouldn’t be as tragic as everyone thinks. There are many benefits to the warming of the earth, as there are consequences. Warming on a global scale would have dramatic effects on life and climates. Some effects may be harmful but many of them are beneficial. Some ideas about global warming consequences are myths that are unlikely. Many people say that global warming is linked with the uprising in tropical storms. Storms such as hurricanes coming from the southeast into Florida coasts have been getting stronger for many years, but in 1991 there was a drought of storms that ranged to 1995. The amount and intensity fell way below the average, which suggests that these storms were not affected by the warming of the earth (Bible Believers 3 and 4). Others claim that sea levels have risen all over the world because the polar ice caps are slowly melting due to the warming. Tests have proven that temperatures at the poles are actually getting colder and that sea levels have been rising for centuries before we had any affect on the c limate (Bible Believers 3). Former Vice President Al Gore spoke of diseases migrating due to climate warming. He spoke of diseases like the Black Plague and Cholera, which he believed were  spread because of weather patterns. Rats, who spread the Black Plague, lived in both warm and cold climates so they had no reason to migrate. His second example Cholera has been a problem in both warm and cold climates and can be easily treated by purifying the water we drink (Heartland Institute 9). Many people have never heard possible benefits of global warming before. Having a warmer climate is very beneficial. Historically, very warm periods in time resulted in flourishing life such as plants, animals, and fish (Bible Believers 4). Even large amounts of CO2 can be beneficial. More CO2 in the atmosphere fuels plants, which makes more food for all walks of life. Vikings were once able to farm what is now a cold and icy Greenland (Zipperer 3). A warming of the earth would result in longer growing seasons and would deplete world hunger and crop failure (Robinson 3). Global warming wouldn’t be all that bad, but we do not have a way to tell if there is or will be any warming because of the difficulty to predict the weather. In order to make predictions about weather, people have designed computer models that estimate changes in weather patterns. The models are designed from past weather data and possible factors effecting the weather. What modelers do not know is that global weather is very hard to predict, maybe even impossible without the right understanding and tools for the job (Robinson 2). Factors such as clouds, precipitation, oceans, and the sun are misunderstood and often underestimated (Zipperer 2). Modelers also leave out possible advances in the future such as nuclear energy and the positive effect it would have on the environment (Lindzen 2). Our current technology isn’t even close to being advanced enough. Errors in the data are equivalent to 50% (Lindzen 3). These computer models could not even predict weather from the past. While global temperatures have raised by .3 to .6 C over the past 100 years models have over predicted the increase to be from .7 to 1.4 C by the year 1990 (Heartland Institute 7). Climate modelers have even inputted their own bias into the data, shifting variables to what they want them to be. â€Å"Climate modelers have been cheating for so long it’s almost become respectable,† says Richard A. Kerr, a writer for Science magazine. Further research on the topic is necessary in order to accurately determine whether we have a problem or not. Many people of profession have studied global warming and what may affect the outcome of their results. When measuring from the surface global temperatures have increased by about .6 degrees Celsius with a .2-degree error, but parts of the United States including the southeast have cooled slightly since the late 19th century (NOAA 2). For those 100 years of slight warming, 70% of it occurred before the industrial revolution in 1940 in which man began to emit gases into the air (Zipperer 2). The surface on and around the equator has remained plus or minus 1 degree Celsius of its current temperature for billions of years (Lindzen 4). Research has also been done to determine the affect on rising and falling temperatures. Scientists have found very close relations with solar activity from the sun and the current temperature patterns, which suggests that fluctuations in temperatures are out of our hands (NOAA 5). Satellites are the best way to determine global temperatures. They are unbiased and have only a 0.001-degree Celsius of error (Heartland Institute 6). These satellites have confirmed that there is no evidence of global warming. If anything there is a slight cooling in the atmosphere (National Center 3). Very reliable agencies have done their own research on global warming. Many scientists have tested the greenhouse theory carefully and have found that greenhouse warming isn’t even occurring and that rising temperatures are do to different stages of solar activity (Robinson 1). In 1995 the IPCC, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, did not prove that humans were affecting global temperatures (Heartland Institute 8). Their report, Climate Change, includes a statement, â€Å"The balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on the global climate† (Heartland Institute 8). Dr. Roy Spencer, a meteorologist and team leader of the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, quotes, â€Å"The temperatures we measure from space a re actually on a very slight downward trend since 1979†¦ the trend is about 0.05C per decade cooling† (Heartland Institute 7). In a recent poll only 17% of the meteorological society and the American Geophysical Society believe that global warming is a product of man (Bible Believers 2). Representatives from the Environmental Protection Agency are threatening to withdraw their support from a global warming study done by the government. They have said that the report has an â€Å"extreme/alarmist tone† and that it does not â€Å"appear to fairly reflect the scientific literature and the historical record†Ã‚  (Torres 1). The representatives claimed that the report also had â€Å"scientifically inaccurate statements about the potential implications of climate change for air pollution and human† (Torres 1 and 2). Usually, in scientific law, if a hypothesis fails through experimentation it should be discarded, but the theory of global warming and greenhouse gases as a result of man is still considered substantial hypothesis even though it has been proven to be unlikely (Robinson 2). The debate of global warming may continue on for many years to come. Mankind may never see any rising in global temperatures, but nevertheless it will be speculated. Thomas O’Connell At this moment in time there has not been any reliable and convincing evidence that the globe is dangerously warming. Global temperature is a product of natural variables that affect the earth. Man has little if any influence on this temperature. Many of the greenhouse claims have been poorly researched and have yet to be proven credible. Hopefully in the future science will prevail and provide the real answer. Until then, people interested in global warming should do research of their own in order to formulate their own opinion. Life on earth has adapted or evolved to the environment. The earth will never adapt or change due to a single species; the earth is far too powerful. As this paper comes to a close a quote sums up the main idea. Thomas O’Connell once said, â€Å"As the rhetoric of the proponents gives way to real problem or is this phenomena more closely related to political agendas. I’ll wait for the science.†

Thursday, August 29, 2019

The Natural of Semantic Change

SEMANTICS THE NATURE OF SEMANTIC CHANGE Presented by group 9: Riva Nugraha Jiwa 0910733154 Alfi Nurhidayati 1010731008 Nadia Turrahmi 1010732014 ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF HUMANITIES ANDALAS UNIVERSITY INTRODUCTION 70 years ago, Edward Sapir introduced a new concept of linguistics. He said that language moved on every time and then created their own forms and never static. Every word, every grammatical element, proverbs, sounds and accents configured which was changed slowly and this was the ways how a language could long lasting.This concept of language made the other linguists interested. The change of meaning could happen because of some reasons, according to Millet a meaning could change easily because of the discontinuous from one generation to the other generations, the blur of meaning, the lost of motivation, the appearance of polysemy, there are some ambiguous contexts, vocabulary structures, and so on. The nature of semantic change can be divided into some categories, met aphor, metonymy, popular etymology, ellipsis, and also some consequences change of meaning. SEMANTIC CHANGE A.The nature of semantic change Aksioma Leibniz said â€Å"natura non facit saltus† that means the nature changed indirectly and slowly, this sentence also can we applied in change of meaning. Every changing had their each reason and always related and associated from the old meaning into the new meaning. One of semantics tradition looks up meaning as â€Å"the interrelationship between name and meaning†. So, we can conclude that change of meaning divide into two types: change of meaning based on association of meaning-meaning, and also name-name. Every type can be differs into similarity ad contiguity. . Metaphor Metaphor is important in language because it can make them more creative and aesthetics, it is common in literary field such as poem. Metaphor has some functions in everyday life, there are as the motivation, expression ways, as the source of synonym an d polysemy, to fill the blank in vocabulary, and the way to express the emotion, etc. The structure of metaphor is simple, it always said one thing is another thing. It does not use the word as, like, and comparative words and other, this case make the reader try to find the similarities.For example: a) Her home is a prison, in this case her home have same characteristic of prison, we can imagine that she can’t leave her home, she tapped inside, and maybe afraid of the outside. b) The police man let him off by a yellow card, in this sentence ‘yellow card’ refers to warning, the original sense is in soccer player a yellow card that the referee shows to the player when cautioning them and give the second chance to introspect themselves. c) in Indonesian language we can take the example Gonzales menanduk bola, we know that Gonzales is a human and he did the work which is did by an animal buffalo.In this case, menanduk have same meaning with the other, because it ref ers to an action using a head, in human we call menyundul and in buffalo we cal menanduk. * Anthropomorphic metaphor The person who is interested toward this kind of metaphor is Giambattista Vico, he said that in every language the most part of expression refer to inanimate, compared by transferring from any part of body, sense, and also the emotion of human being. For example: a) in Indonesian language: jantung kota, bahu jalan, mulut sungai, etc. b) in English language muscle comes from Latin language musculus that means ‘little mouse’. Animal metaphor This category applied for animal or inanimate types, many plants using animal’s name to call them. For example: a) lidah buaya, kumis kucing, jambu monyet, etc. b) in English there are some plants with animal’s name goat’s-beard and dog’s tail. Beside that, there are animal’s name transferred into human being for describe humor, irony, and other. For example: si beo, the speaker use th is word toward the other because they have same characteristic or their action refer to the animal itself. * From concrete to abstractOne of the tendency in metaphor is explaining the abstract into the concrete, when we try to find the abstract word at first we must know the concrete one. For example in English light ‘sinar, cahaya, lampu’ which is concrete, when this word close to the other morpheme they sometimes become abstract like highlights ‘menyoroti’. If it compares to Indonesian language the condition is same, for example the concrete one is ‘sinar, cahaya’, it become abstract metaphor in sorot mata, hidupnya sedang bersinar, ajarannya menyinari dunia, harta yang menyilaukan, and so on. Synaesthetic metaphor This metaphor based on the transferred of one sense to the other sense, for example from sense of hearing to sight, from touch to sound, etc. If we talk about the sound which is warm and cool, we can see that there are the similari ties between temperatures with the kind of sounds. The structure of metaphor begin in literary works when the raising of symbolism era. We can see from one of Shakespeare’s work: I see a voice; now will I to the chink To spy an I can hear my Thisby’s face 2. MetonymyMetonymy involves some sort of connection between concepts, but in this case there is no similarity between them, but they are closely linked in some other way. Metonymy can divide into the association they based on. First, metonymy transfer based on spaces and places. The change of meaning the Latin word coxa ‘pinggul’ into France language cuisse ‘pupu;paha’ it explained that pinggul and paha is our part of body which is close and do not have correct constraint. Second, metonymy transfer based on time or temporal.The name of action or event can be transferred into something that predate and follow the change. For example, in English, ‘collation’ now defined into diffe rent meaning ‘perbandingan’ and ‘makanan ringan’ where as both of them are relates. Previously, in Catholic ceremony the reading from Collationes Patrum by Cassian usually read before the end of mass, it followed by snack which called collation because the snack related with the reading. So, the name of book followed by the snack that also consume in the close time in mass period.Third, the relation can create the change of metonymy, there are some part that is important but sometime it divide into own category, or we can call it pars pro toto. For example in Indonesia, ‘pasukan baju kuning’ it refers to the group who clean up the road. And the last metonymy is simple and famous because we don’t need the worst and crucial speech. We know that most of the founder named something which they found by their name. For example, the terminology in electricity ampere, volt, ohm named by the founder Andre Ampere, Count Allessandro Volta, and Geor g Simon Ohm. . Popular Etymology Etymology is the branch of linguistics that studies the origin and development of words and other linguistic forms. The examples of the areas that are studied include the earliest origins of a word, how its meanings and connotations have changed, the meanings and origins of its component parts, whether or how it has spread to other languages, and how its meaning or use has been influenced by other words. The history of a word also is called its etymology.For example, France language forain become English foreign which come from Latin foranus, one of derivative from Latin foris ‘tidak dengan; ke luar negeri; the nature meaning is the foreign as we used in English. 4. Ellipsis Words which often occur side by side are act to have a semantic influence on each other. We have already sees an example of this in the history of negation in French. The commonest form which this influence takes in ellipsis. In a set phrase made up of two words, one of the se it omitted and its meaning it transferred to its partner.For example, in Jakarta’s dialect ‘tidak tahu’, sometimes just utter in ‘tahu’. B. The consequences of the change of meaning * The change in the area of meaning Many older writer divide change of meaning in three categories, there are: extension, restriction, and the last that do not grouped into both of them. The division can called as â€Å"logical division† they also has some weaknesses, although the division is simple and easy. The division does not give clearly describing about the formal form in causes or the background how it can be changed.And then, the third division just grouped because can’t let in first and second division. Truthfully the basic is the meaning become wide or narrow and continuously by the time. 1). Restriction This change make the meaning of certain word become restrict and the intense become more variable. For example, English ‘poison’ means racun, first the word come from ‘potion’ that means ‘beer’ because beer can damage our body and sometimes make somebody die. Later poison just use to refer the drink that can make somebody die, not to all of beer. 2). ExtensionIn extension meaning, the word can be applied in large contexts by following the time the intense become weaker and something that referred become smaller. For example, arriver in France and arrive in English, this word come from Latin arripare, it become ripa ‘tepi sungai; pantai’ because it refers to the coming of someone. * The changes in evaluation: pejorative and ameliorative 1). Pejorative The change caused the word become lower or negative than before, for example: ‘perempuan’ come from ‘empu’ that means ‘ibu jari’ it should be has higher meaning.But nowadays, ‘perempuan’ is lower if compare to ‘wanita’. 2). Ameliorative The change caused the wo rd become higher and positive than before, for example: ‘minister’ at first define as ‘minus or slave’ but nowadays the meaning become higher into ‘the person who stayed in governmental system. CONCLUSION The Nature of Semantic Change, there is must always be some connection, some association between the old and the new meaning, association is the necessary condition of semantic change.Meaning is determined by three factors: the objective reference (the referent), the subjective apprehension (the subject, i. e. the speaker or the hearer) and the traditional range (the word). Any change has as its immediate cause a change in one of these three relations. Types of semantic change: Similarity of the senses (metaphor), Contiguity of the senses (metonymy), Similarity of the names (folk etymology), Contiguity of the names (ellipsis), all of these types is changes that occur with time. Reference: * Ullman, Stephen. 2011. Pengantar Semantik. Pustaka Pelajar: Yogyakarta

Wednesday, August 28, 2019

Analyse how the narrators perspective shapes (or mis-shapes) our Essay - 1

Analyse how the narrators perspective shapes (or mis-shapes) our perceptions in two novels from this course - Essay Example According to the (Hardie & Lucas 2001), economics affects the relationships of young and financial instability and differences lead to separations and divorces. These financial differences exert stresses on the couples leading to increase in conflicts and disagreements between them. These economic issues increase the regular level of violence between the couple. Mr Bennet was a person with strong personality and intelligence but his wife who was a daughter of lawyer was totally opposite. She was not patient and was an obsessed personality. Other than that she had negative traits of being pushy and forceful all the time. While on the other hand she was so desperate for the weddings of her daughter that she used to use embarrassing ways for her family to develop an interaction between her daughters and rich men. Mr Bennet was on the other hand a totally patient person with a calm personality so with time he surrendered himself to his wife but with the passing time became unsatisfied with his marriage. Now linking to the argument which was drawn earlier that middle class people believe when a couple is pushed in to marriage they automatically get involved while living together. But the cases presented in the novel portrays opposite. Irritating and all time forceful pushy behaviours lead to dissatisfactions amongst people making them unhappy ab out their marriages (Bautz & Tredell 2009). The argument was drawn in the first paragraph that middle class females believe that forceful marriages are fruitful too in the end but the actual reality is different. They are not fruitful and people stay dissatisfied from their relations. Linking it to the story of Jane and Bingley the initial attractions between them were the results of Mrs Bennet’s pushy behaviour. But Bingley proposed Jane as a result of their personal communications (Clark 1994). The insights of cultural and class differences are presented through the relationship of Elizabeth

Big Four Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Big Four - Essay Example They founded Central Pacific in 1861. They were also responsible for starting the American transcontinental line. Construction of the rail began in Sacramento, California, in 1863 which reached south to Arizona in 1877. The Central Pacific met the Union Pacific at Promontory, Utah, in May 1869. Stanford was born on March 9 1824, and he passed on June 21, 1893. He was an American mogul, industrialist, politician and forefather of Stanford University. He remade himself in gold rush era in California as a merchant. He left the Midwest to become a partner in a wholesale grocery industry created by his brothers. He was slow to speak, a deliberate thinker, and he was characterized by a steady nature that repeatedly provoked his railroad partners. Stanford headed east to lobby for the undertaking and gain biased support for his gubernatorial tender. Stanford appointed Theodore Judah and Doc Strong as nominating committee, and, perhaps swayed by his political gravity, they in turn named Stanford president. It was a insignificant to company mastermind Huntington, who had to settle for vice president and the beginning of bad blood that estranged him from Stanford and drove Judah away from the Central Pacific. Bad choices cost Stanford his governors office by the end of his first term- characteristic was his May decision to appoint business partner E. B. Crocker to the California Supreme Court.Political position had allowed him to funnel state money to the railroad; free from the responsibilities of office, Stanford turned his full attention to railroad duties. In 1868 he signed a million-dollar draft without their consultation, making the company captive to the Bank of California Collis P. Huntington was born in 1821 and passed on in the 1900. He went to California in1849 on news about gold. He had an uncanny intelligence for buying and selling. There he became a partner with Mark Hopkins in a successful wholesale-retail firm that specialized in miners’

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Effects of Identity Theft Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Effects of Identity Theft - Research Paper Example â€Å"The 1998 U.S. Identity Theft and Assumption Deterrence Act (ITADA) has defined identity theft as the knowing transfer, possession, or usage of any name or number that identifies another person, with the intent of committing or aiding or abetting a crime† (Roberts & Shreft, 2009, pp.22-30) This theft has its effects varying from individual losses to insecurity pertaining to nationally relevant matters. The objective of the essay is to critically analyze the effect of these identity thefts generally to the economy and specifically to the industries and individuals dependent on identity based virtual facilities. CSU (2009, pp 7-8) has reported that the trend of identity theft had been on increase in 2008. The report had cited in the last six months of the year 2008, there had been an increase of 25 percent in the issues pertaining to identity theft. These identity thefts included illegal transaction of personal information through online chat rooms which becomes active market for trade of security information pertaining to internet banking passwords, credit card numbers and social security numbers CSU (2009, pp 7-8). This trend has been reiterated by the FTC as well which has confirmed that they had received almost 1200000 complaints pertaining to identity thefts. This statistics indicated an increase of 50 percent over the count in the previous year. As per this report the most common among the identity thefts were the credit card frauds. As per the reported crimes cited by Federal Trade Commission, the financial losses included in the theft counted up to 1.8 million dollars. In the Americ an context, the trend in identity theft has been found on an increase in the states of Arizona, California and Florida. The peculiarities of the present American economic situation following the economic recession have been stated by

Monday, August 26, 2019

Critical Analysis Of The Great Rulers' Reign Assignment

Critical Analysis Of The Great Rulers' Reign - Assignment Example The reason can be deemed as the aggressive and the strict decisions that they had taken in order to maintain law and order during their reign. As the approach was rough and rude, it often generated rebels from his countrymen. The same case was with Martin Luther King who was a clergyman, humanitarian, activist and the great leader of the African-American Civil Rights. He is famous for the role that he played in the development of civil rights by use of nonviolent civil disobedience. Thus by his works he has become a renowned national icon in the history of American progressivism (Bruns, 2006). During his reign, he was faced with many allegations and conspiracies which had acted as barriers in the course of his leadership. He had encountered surveillance by the FBI director, J. Edgar Hoover who had intended to weaken the power of King as a civic leader. The National Security Agency had monitored the communication of King so as to take account of the steps that are being taken by the a ctivists. Since King was penetrating deep into communism, the FBI conspired to discredit him through some revelations of his personal life in form of candid information about his many supposed extramarital affairs. Thus, it can be stated from the above situations that he had faced many obstructions during his reign (Gosman, 2011). Question 1 a. Early Life of King (born, society in which he grew up) Martin Luther King was born on January 15, 1929, and has taken his last breath on April 4, 1968. The King’s initial name was Michael but it was later changed to Martin. His grandfather had begun his career as the pastor in the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, where he has served the nation from 1914 to 1931. Thereafter, his father has served until his death and in the year 1960, Martin Luther became the co-pastor (Gosman, 2011). In his early days, King used to attend a segregated public school in Georgia.

Sunday, August 25, 2019

Policy Implementation and Application Assignment

Policy Implementation and Application - Assignment Example It is important for you to note that, the current ethical standards have brought ethical behavior in our organization to the forefront of public consciousness. Today after getting knowledge of the past, and getting to know the role played by ethics in running a business, the question is no longer, whether ethics is vital, but how to maintain the ethical behavior in an association. I wish to notify you that, how you handle customer related issues as the mangers and leaders of the organization, determines the size of our customer base. I therefore, wish to make an appeal that you exercise the courteous behaviors at all times in handling the issues poised by our esteemed customers at all times. I wish to reiterate to you that, in today’s community, individuals do not at all times do what is right, they may be right aware that doing certain things will bring greater consequences that they would not like but go ahead and perform them. It is, therefore, your responsibility as the le aders of ECG to make sure that the organizational culture supports the ethical conduce and social responsibility. As the ambassadors of our company, you must be the voice that individuals look to, to understand what they are up to at all times. I wish to reiterate that as the top leaders and managers of ECG, you are expected to alleviate vices that are detrimental to the success of our organizational activities such as harassment, discrimination, and abuse of office. You are expected to uphold professionalism in running the affairs of our company at all times. Various aspects of the company such as recruitment and promotion of personnel warrants stringent adherence to the laid procedures. You are expected to recruit personnel into the company with respect to merit and competence. Discipline is paramount at ECG and thus, as the leaders and managers of the organization; you are expected to identify the errand members of the organization, hence subject them to disciplinary measures acc ordingly. It is important for you to note that the conduct of the employees under your respective capacity as leaders depends on your respective management styles. Concerning this, therefore, I appeal for your close monitoring of the organization’s employees to ensure that they adhere to the stipulated rules and regulations. I wish to inform you that, as the leaders and managers of ECG in various capacities, you ought to make it a continual habit to treat every worker fairly. It is important for you to note that fair treatment of the organization’s employees dictates their level of commitment to the activities of the organization. Therefore, try to win the confidence of the employees under your respective leadership at all times whenever you are attending to their needs or interacting with them. Try to inculcate good morals and sense of hard work in all employees at all times. I wish to let you know that, the manner in which the ward of tenders at ECG is done, contrave nes the recommended procedures. I therefore, call upon the members who sit in this committee to portray high professionalism and integrity while handling all the affairs related to the progress of the. Kindly, note that, the ethical dilemmas can cause effects to association’s reputation, and its financial performance. You are expect

Saturday, August 24, 2019

Community Health Nursing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 5

Community Health Nursing - Essay Example Suicide may result from depression, from a post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar, anxiety, substance use or a borderline personality disorder. Suicide is a preventable public health problem and any person who expresses any kind of suicidal thoughts or intentions needs to be taken very seriously. Other warning signs include sudden withdrawal, hopelessness and excessive sadness, showing dangerous and self-harmful behaviors, change in behavior to think and always talk about death and threatening suicide (Nordentoft, Mortensen, & Pedersen, 2011). Many treatment options can be considered for treating mental disorders depending on the type of condition. Among them includes behavioral therapy a form of psychotherapy for treating psychopathology, cognitive behavioral therapy a psychotherapeutic approach composed of behavioral and cognitive techniques, cognitive therapy to help individuals think more effectively and group therapy a form of psychotherapy. Other treatment options available include use of Electroconvulsive therapy used to treatment major depressions not responding to other treatment options, pharmacological therapy by medication use such as antipsychotics and antidepressants, the use of individual psychotherapy and psychoanalytic treatment option focused on helping the patient become aware of the underlying sources of their pathological condition (Jorm, 2012). Mental health nurses have a role in working with clients in the community to coordinate the range of services that are required in an effort of maximizing the patient’s level of functioning. They work together with the caregivers and family members to offer and support in dealing with the conditions. However, their role varies depending on the setting and areas of specialization. Among some of the common roles they play include caring for patients, assessing and educating patients, medication administration, encouraging patients, provision of therapy, enhancing

Friday, August 23, 2019

Critical Adoption Factors Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Critical Adoption Factors - Essay Example urity is highly critical factor simply because without it the consumers that utilize MasterCard ® daily would simply switch from using them to utilizing a competitor with better assumed and visible security. The socio-economic factors at play affect hundreds of billions of processing and consumer based dollars every day. Without the ability to project absolute security to its clients it would quickly loose the trust necessary to continue its ability to control such a large financial position. Part of the MasterCard ® approach to maintaining a visible air of impenetrable security is their initiation of series of seminars and training modules specifically addressing security. According to MasterCard Academy of Risk Management or (ARM), â€Å"ARM courses provide best-in-class knowledge and expertise to customers to enhance their risk management capabilities. MasterCard has created a comprehensive curriculum for those seeking to increase their skills and knowledge of fraud and risk mitigation.† (MasterCard Academy of Risk Management, 2011) Obviously, MasterCard takes security extremely seriously, as a result any new collaboration technologies integrated would need the utmost care a nd additional reassurance to the consumer base regardless of status as end user banks or transaction making

Thursday, August 22, 2019

Almost One of the Gods. The Odyssey, by Homer Essay Example for Free

Almost One of the Gods. The Odyssey, by Homer Essay An epic hero is one who does not act irrationally and contemplates his actions and their implications. Odysseus, of Homers The Odyssey, is an appropriate epic hero because he embodies the values of bravery, intelligence, astuteness, and competency. Numerous examples are found throughout The Odyssey. Such illustrations include Odysseus conflict with the Cyclops, the Sirens, and Scylla and Charybdis. First, Odysseus proves that he is a mortal laudable of being dubbed an epic hero during his conflict with the Cyclops. Odysseus shows evidence of his intellectual abilities by first devising a plan to disable the Cyclops and then by cleverly telling the Cyclops that his name is Noman. Odysseus exemplifies his physical strength by putting his plan into action and ramming a monstrous spear into the Cyclops eye. Later, when the Cyclops calls for help, he says that Noman is doing harm to him. Another event in which Odysseus displays his physical and intellectual abilities is during his passing of the Sirens. Odysseus shows that he has wisdom by listening to the goddess Circes advice and putting wax into his crews ears so they will not take notice of the Sirens and try to swim across the ocean to them. He also has his crew lash him to the mast so he can listen to the Sirens without being able to jump out of the boat. This incident also tells of Odysseus physical force because when he attempts to free himself from the mast the crewmen have to fasten him down even tighter. Finally, Odysseus confirms his great intellectual aptitudes by getting past Scylla and Charybdis. Odysseus, following Circes instructions, avoids Charybdis, and chooses the side of the six-headed monster, Scylla. Odysseus recognizes that the six-headed beast is too large for him to mà ªlà ©e with and rows very swiftly, successfully surpassing it. In conclusion, Odysseus is a perfect example of an epic hero. Odysseus has all of the traits of an epic hero. He has verified these qualities in many intricate situations in which he always gets out of and is always prepared for.

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

Machiavelli’s The Prince Essay Example for Free

Machiavelli’s The Prince Essay In Machiavelli’s The Prince, he plunged into how a prince could bulwark his position once he reaches the top. One of the many ways of how to secure a prince’s position is conquest by criminal virtue. In conquest by criminal virtue, Michiavelli said that a prince secures his position when he reaches the top because it takes a long time and a lot of hard work to prosper. So to make sure no one takes away their position, the prince crushes his opponents and earns obeisance from the people as much as possible. The prince also makes fewer compromises with their allies, trying to stand alone because he believes he is more sufficient and stronger than the others. A prince must also know how to reform orders. This may cause havoc because people who benefited the old order might oppose the prince but he must have the power to force the people to continue supporting him even though they are already having second thoughts. So why does this persist even though every politician and every citizen who thinks rationally knows that this is immoral. We humans are naturally driven by our hunger for power, fame and fortune. We set aside moral values and ethical values just to quench our self-interests. Politicians act on it because they know this is the easiest way to eliminate a threat. This is a permanent thing so when an enemy ceases to exist, he’s permanently gone from the competition and this gives the other politician a peace of mind because he knows that he will win for sure if he has no opponent. Citizens do not act upon this because first, citizens that belong to the lower class are afraid. How could they go against someone so powerful that this person could end their life with just a snap of their fingers? The span and extent of power of this kind of politician is vague that it might extend to having the upper hand and control over criminals and we never know what he will do just to preserve his power, fame and fortune. Second, most citizens who know about the wrong doings of this politician is paid and given a lot of consolations for their support and silence. As I said, we humans are naturally driven by our hunger by fortune. For people who do not work and believe in gaining money from a real job, this is the most convenient way of earning money because they don’t have to do anything but tay silent, run a few errands for the politician and write the politician’s name on their ballot every time he runs for a seat. There is also the fact that when local citizens support this politician, they are more secured and well protected. People who try to clash with these local citizens would already feel threaten beforehand because the politician will back them up in part of their deal for the secrecy of the politician’s dirty work. This is one of the most immoral acts performed in politics, but one that somehow we can never get rid of.

Approaches To Implementing Appreciative Inquiry Cultural Studies Essay

Approaches To Implementing Appreciative Inquiry Cultural Studies Essay Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is an organizational development process or philosophy that engages individuals within an organizational system in its renewal, change and focused performance. Appreciative Inquiry was adopted from work done by earlier action research theorists and practitioners and further developed by David Cooperrider of Case Western Reserve University. It is now a commonly accepted practice in the evaluation of organizational development strategy and implementation of organizational effectiveness tactics. Appreciative Inquiry is a particular way of asking questions and envisioning the future that fosters positive relationships and builds on the basic goodness in a person, a situation, or an organization. In so doing, it enhances a systems capacity for collaboration and change.0#cite_note-0[1] Appreciative Inquiry utilizes a cycle of 4 processes focusing on: DISCOVER: The identification of organizational processes that work well. DREAM: The envisioning of processes that would work well in the future. DESIGN: Planning and prioritizing processes that would work well. DESTINY (or DELIVER): The implementation (execution) of the proposed design.1#cite_note-1[2] 2#cite_note-2[3] The basic idea is to build organizations around what works, rather than trying to fix what doesnt. It is the opposite of problem solving. Instead of focusing gaps and inadequacies to find blame and remediate skills or practices, AI focuses on how to create more of the occasional exceptional performance that is occurring because a core of strengths is aligned. The approach acknowledges the contribution of individuals, in order to increase trust and organizational alignment. The method aims to create meaning by drawing from stories of concrete successes and lends itself to cross-industrial social activities. It can be enjoyable and natural to many managers, who are often sociable people. There are a variety of approaches to implementing Appreciative Inquiry, including mass-mobilized interviews and a large, diverse gathering called an Appreciative Inquiry Summit (Ludema, Whitney, Mohr and Griffin, 2003). Both approaches involve bringing very large, diverse groups of people together to study and build upon the best in an organization or community. The basic philosophy of AI is also found in other positively oriented approaches to individual change as well as organizational change. As noted above, AI fosters positive relationships and builds on the basic goodness in a person, or a situation . The idea of building on strength, rather than just focusing on faults and weakness is a powerful idea in use in mentoring programs, and excellent performance evaluations. It is the basic idea behind teaching micro-affirmations as well as teaching about micro-inequities. (See Microinequity Rowe Micro-Affirmations and Micro-inequities in the Journal of the International Ombudsman Association, Volume 1, Number 1, March 2008.) AI has been used extensively to foster change in businesses (a variety of sectors), health care systems, social profit organizations, educational institutions, communities, local governments, and religious institutions. Appreciative inquiry (AI) is a major breakthrough in organization development, training and development and in problem solving, in general. AI is based on the assertion that problems are often the result of our own perspectives and perceptions of phenomena, eg, if we look at a certain priority as a problem, then we tend to constrain our ability to effectively address the priority and to continue to develop in our lives and work. AI is a philosophy so a variety of models, tools and techniques can be derived from that philosophy. For example, one AI-based approach to strategic planning includes identification of our best times during the best situations in the past in an organization, wishing and thinking about what worked best then, visioning what we want in the future, and building from what worked best in order to work toward our vision. The approach has revolutionized many practices, including strategic planning and organization development. Various Perspectives The following links are by no means a complete list of online resources about AI. Like any other topic in the Library, the following links are to resources that can help to get you started in learning more about this topic. Appreciative Inquiry Commons AI : the Quest Appreciative Inquiry Resources Appreciative Inquiry and Community Development Appreciative Inquiry 5D Spiral of Development Taos Institute on Appreciative Inquiry Appreciative Enquiry . . . it is through language that we create the world, because its nothing until we describe it.   And when we describe it, we create distinctions that govern our actions.   To put it another way, we do not describe the world we see, but we see the world we describe.  Ã‚  Ã‚   Joseph Jaworski As it has evolved, there are a number of ways in which to conduct an Appreciative Inquiry (AI)Team Building but the processes all tend to follow a common path of four phases: Discovery (conducting appreciative interviews and identifying the themes and life-giving forces), Dream (developing provocative propositions for the future), Design (integrating wishes for the future with plans for needed changes to structure, systems and processes) and Destiny (making it happen and making it sustainable over time Appreciative enquiry is a new way of approaching problem solving, team-building and solution development. Appreciative Inquiry works from a set of assumptions. 1. In every society, organisation or group, something works well. 2. What we focus on, becomes our reality. 3. Reality is created in the moment, and there are multiple realities. 4. The act of asking questions of a person, or group influences the group/person in some way. 5. People have more confidence to journey to the future (the unknown) when they carry forward parts of the past (the known). 6. If we carry forward parts of the past, they should be what is best about our past. 7. It is important to value differences. 8. The language we use creates our reality and experience. The Appreciativer Inquiry Way While these may seem obvious, we know from our own experience that we can look at what isnt working and start problem solving. This pulls us backwards/downwards rather than forwards.   If we focus on difficulties in the past, people become self defensive and feel that life is hopeless.   When we ask them about their successes, they become enthusiastic and start to hope again and explore possibility. Appreciative Inquiry 5-D Cycle Discovery: The Appreciative Inquiry approach to personal, or organisational, change is to begin by looking for what is working -APPRECIATING the best of our experience. Dream: This is to consider what might be ENVISIONING RESULTS Design: What should be the ideal? CO-CONSTRUCTING Destiny: How to empower, learn adjust or improvise    SUSTAINING Do-It: Action towards achievement Commitment, response, action The tangible result of the Appreciative Inquiry process is a series of statements that describe where the person or organisation wants to be, based on the best moments of where they have been. Because these statements are based in real experience and history, people know how to repeat their success. They have created before, they can create once again. The purpose is to reconnect with the life giving forces-what is working, and then go beyond that to, what could be if we expanded our paradigm of possibility. What is Appreciative Inquiry? from A Positive Revolution in Change: Appreciative Inquiry by David L. Cooperrider and Diana Whitney. Ap-preci-ate, v., 1. valuing; the act of recognizing the best in people or the world around us; affirming past and present strengths, successes, and potentials; to perceive those things that give life (health, vitality, excellence) to living systems 2. to increase in value, e.g. the economy has appreciated in value. Synonyms: VALUING, PRIZING, ESTEEMING, and HONORING. In-quire (kwir), v., 1. the act of exploration and discovery. 2. To ask questions; to be open to seeing new potentials and possibilities. Synonyms: DISCOVERY, SEARCH, and SYSTEMATIC EXPLORATION, STUDY. Appreciative Inquiry is about the coevolutionary search for the best in people, their organizations, and the relevant world around them. In its broadest focus, it involves systematic discovery of what gives life to a living system when it is most alive, most effective, and most constructively capable in economic, ecological, and human terms. AI involves, in a central way, the art and practice of asking questions that strengthen a systems capacity to apprehend, anticipate, and heighten positive potential. It centrally involves the mobilization of inquiry through the crafting of the unconditional positive question often-involving hundreds or sometimes thousands of people. In AI the arduous task of intervention gives way to the speed of imagination and innovation; instead of negation, criticism, and spiraling diagnosis, there is discovery, dream, and design. AI seeks, fundamentally, to build a constructive union between a whole people and the massive entirety of what people talk about a s past and present capacities: achievements, assets, unexplored potentials, innovations, strengths, elevated thoughts, opportunities, benchmarks, high point moments, lived values, traditions, strategic competencies, stories, expressions of wisdom, insights into the deeper corporate spirit or soul and visions of valued and possible futures. Taking all of these together as a gestalt, AI deliberately, in everything it does, seeks to work from accounts of this positive change core-and it assumes that every living system has many untapped and rich and inspiring accounts of the positive. Link the energy of this core directly to any change agenda and changes never thought possible are suddenly and democratically mobilized. What is Appreciative Inquiry? Appreciative Inquiry is the study and exploration of what gives life to human systems when they are at their best. It is an organization development methodology based on the assumption that inquiry into and dialogue about strengths, successes, values, hopes and dreams is itself transformational. It is founded on the following set of beliefs about human nature and human organizing: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ People individually and collectively have unique gifts, skills and contributions to bring to life. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Organizations are human social systems, sources of unlimited relational capacity, created and lived in language. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The images we hold of the future are socially created and, once articulated, serve to guide individual and collective actions. Through human communication (inquiry and dialogue) people can shift their attention and action away from problem analysis to lift up worthy ideals and productive possibilities for the future. In short, Appreciative Inquiry suggests that human organizing and change, at its best, is a relational process of inquiry, grounded in affirmation and appreciation. One way to understand Appreciative Inquiry is to consider the meaning of its two words. Each word alone has implications for the practice of organization change. The power of Appreciative Inquiry, however, is the by-product of the two words working together. Like hydrogen and oxygen that combine to make water the most nurturing substance on earth appreciation and inquiry combined produce a powerful, vital approach to leadership and organization change. Appreciation: Recognition and Value Added Appreciation has to do with recognition, with valuing and with gratitude. The word appreciate is a verb that carries a double meaning. It refers to both the act of recognition and the act of enhancing value. Definitions include: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ to recognize the best in people and the world around us; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ to perceive those things which give life, health, vitality and excellence to living human systems; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ to affirm past and present strengths, successes, assets and potentials; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ to increase in value (e.g., the investment has appreciated in value). Indeed, organizations, businesses and communities can benefit by greater appreciation. Around the global, people hunger for recognition. They want to work from their strengths on tasks they find of value. Executives and managers long to lead from their values. They seek ways to integrate their greatest passions into their daily work. And organizations strive regularly to enhance their value to shareholders, employees and the world at large. Inquiry: Exploration and Discovery Appreciative Inquiry is about more than appreciation, recognition, and enhancement of value. Its also about inquiry. Inquiry refers to the acts of exploration and discovery. It implies a quest for new possibilities, being in a state of unknowing, wonder and a willingness to learn. It implies an openness to change. The word inquire also a verb means: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ to ask questions; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ to study; à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ to search, explore, delve into or investigate Inquiry is a learning process for organizations as well as for individuals. Seldom do we search, explore or study what we already know with certainty. We ask questions about and query into areas unfamiliar to us. The act of inquiry requires sincere curiosity and openness to new possibilities, new directions and new understandings. We cannot have all the answers, know what is right, or be certain when we are engaged in inquiry. The spirit of inquiry is the spirit of learning. How Does Appreciative Inquiry Work? The process used to generate the power of Appreciative Inquiry is the 4-D Cycle. Based on the notion that human systems people, teams, organizations and communities grow and change in the direction of what they study, Appreciative Inquiry works by focusing the attention of an organization on its most positive potential its positive core. The positive core is the essential nature of the organization at its best peoples collective wisdom about the organizations tangible and intangible strengths, capabilities, resources, potentials and assets. The Appreciative Inquiry 4-D cycle unleashes the energy of the positive core for transformation and sustainable success. Affirmative Topic Choice: The 4-D Cycle begins with the thoughtful identification of what is to be studied affirmative topics. Since human systems move in the direction of what they study, the choice of what to study what to focus organizational attention on is both essential and strategic. The topics that are selected provide a framework for collecting stories, discovering and sharing best practices, and creating a knowledge-rich work environment. They become the organizations agenda for learning and innovation. Once selected, affirmative topics such as inspired leadership, optimal margins, or culture as competitive advantage guide the 4-D Cycle of Discovery, Dream, Design and Destiny. Discovery: The Discovery phase is a diligent and extensive search to understand the best of what is and what has been. It begins with the collaborative act of crafting appreciative interview questions and constructing an appreciative interview guide. Appreciative Inquiry questions are written as affirmative probes into an organizations positive core, in the topic areas selected. They are written to generate stories, to enrich the images and inner dialogue within the organization, and to bring the positive core more fully into focus. The results of Discovery include: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ The formation of new relationships and alliances, that bridge across traditional barriers. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ A rich description or mapping of the organization s positive core. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Organization-wide sharing and learning from stories of best practices, golden innovations and exemplary actions. à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Greatly enhanced organizational knowledge and collective wisdom. These results, in turn, inspire the emergence of organic, unplanned changes well before implementation of the more planful phases of the 4-D cycle. Dream: The Dream phase is an energizing exploration of what might be: a time for people to explore their hopes and dreams for their work, their working relationships, their organization, and the world at large. It is a time for groups of people to engage in thinking big, thinking out of the box, and thinking out of the boundaries of what has been in the past. The intent of the Dream phase is to identify and spread generative, affirmative, and hopeful images of the future. Typically this is accomplished in large group forums, where unusual combinations of stakeholders explore: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Creative images of the organization s most positive potentials à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Innovative strategic visions à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ An elevated sense of purpose. Design: The Design phase involves making choices about what should be within an organization or system. It is a conscious re-creation or transformation, through which such things as systems, structures, strategies, processes and images will become more fully aligned with the organizations positive past (Discovery) and highest potential (Dream). Destiny: The Destiny phase initiates a series of inspired actions that support ongoing learning and innovation or what will be. Since the entire 4-D Cycle provides an open forum for employees to contribute and step forward in the service of the organization, change occurs in all phases of an Appreciative Inquiry process. The Destiny phase, however, focuses specifically on personal and organizational commitments and paths forward. The result of destiny is generally an extensive array of changes throughout the organization in areas such as: à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Management practices à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ HR processes Measurement systems à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Customer service systems à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¢ Work processes and structures In many cases, the 4-D Cycle provides the framework for ongoing activities. Thus, the cycle begins again . . . and again . . . and again. Why Does Appreciative Inquiry Work? Appreciative Inquiry works because it treats people like people, and not like machines. People are social. We create our identities and our knowledge in relation to one another. We are curious. We like to tell stories and listen to stories. We pass on our values, beliefs and wisdom in stories. We like to learn and to use what we learn to be our best. And we delight in doing well in the eyes of those we care about and respect. Appreciative Inquiry enables leaders to create natural human organizations knowledge rich, strength based, adaptable, learning organizations. Appreciative Inquiry Consulting AI Consulting, LLC offers a collaborative, strength-based approach to strategic change and transformation. At the heart of our practice is Appreciative Inquiry (AI), an approach that draws on the strengths and values of an organization in order to implement its change agenda and achieve its highest goals. AI Consulting has the greatest concentration of AI expertise and our consultants span the globe. Among them are the thought leaders, authors, and founders of AI. Our whole-systems approach, global reach, and collaborative partnerships are reflected in our success stories. AI Consulting combines features of a large consulting firm, a knowledge web, an alliance of change agents, and a socially responsible business entity. We are a principle-driven organization, valuing integrity, learning, generosity, and the common good. Our leading-edge design makes us highly flexible and responsive to client needs. We always seek to enhance the core strengths that give life to an organization while growing its economic vitality, ecological integrity and organizational health. Appreciative Inquiry Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a process for catalyzing positive change developed at Case Western Reserve University by David Cooperrider, a professor of Organizational Behavior at their Weatherhead School of Management. As a graduate student, Cooperrider noticed that most organizational change was driven by consultants going into an organization and looking for problems and then attempting to fix them. He decided to see what happened if he took the opposite approach. During his graduate thesis work, Cooperrider went into the Cleveland Clinic and, rather than seek out what needed fixing, he sought out what was working well. He then developed a structured process to concentrate information about these success factors in what is called the positive core and to then amplify that positive core throughout the organization. The experiment was a great success and Cooperrider went on to establish the process as Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry is both a specific methodology and a perspective and has been defined as the study of what gives life to human systems when they are at their best. As such it ties deeply into fields such as Positive Psychology and Flow which, like AI, stand in contrast to our cultures typical problem-based or deficit-based mindset. To understand the phrase more deeply, we need simply look at the two words that make it up. Appreciate has two meanings: to look for the best in something and to increase something in value, such as when a stock or real estate appreciates. Inquiry means to seek understanding using a process based on provocative questions. So the idea is that provocative questions are used to draw out powerful success stories and identify the factors that are already working well within a human system. We can then use this understanding to help bring about what people want more of (as opposed to the usual cultural focus on reducing what they want less of). The specific methodology of Appreciative Inquiry gives us the tools to do this, while involving both left and right brains, and exploring the past, present and future. It consists of five main phases: Affirmative Topic Choice An interview is carried out using several provocative questions and, from the clients responses, several themes are chosen as the focal points for the rest of the inquiry process. Discovery Further provocative questions are explored regarding each of the Affirmative Topics and, from the clients responses, several themes are again chosen. These themes, a virtual DNA sample of the system at its best, reflect its central success factors its best strengths, talents, assets, values and ideals and are known as its positive core. Dream Creative processes are used to verbally and/or experientially explore what the future might be like if the positive core were more thoroughly enacted throughout the system and to examine, looking back from that vantage point, what must have happened in order for it to have reached such an optimal state. Design The system is organized into an architecture, and preferences chosen for each element of that structure, that will enable further enactment of the positive core and lessons from the Dream phase throughout the system. Provocative Propositions, in which clients put in writing broad goals or ideas that will help encourage the organization to move in the direction of optimization, may also be developed. Destiny Concrete plans are made and supporting resources put in place for enacting the chosen preferences in the service of amplifying the positive core and making the clients dreams a reality. Notice how these phases, in many ways, mimic the evolutionary process. That which is working best in a system is selected for and then those successful elements of the system become the raw material for its next stages of development. Thus, I like to consider Apprecative Inquiry a process for facilitating and accelerating evolutionary processes. Appreciative Inquiry has now been used to aid optimization in many large companies such as British Airways and Verizon, in schools such as at UC Berkeley, and even in whole cities such as in the Imagine Chicago project. It has also been adapted for use with families, individuals, and in many other settings. In developing my company, Emergent Associates, we synthesized a number of other tools and methods within a framework deeply based in Appreciative Inquiry to create our unique coaching and consulting process. Though a simple and enjoyable process for clients to experience, Appreciative Inquiry ties into fields as diverse as evolution, chaos theory, Systems Thinking, and other systems sciences. A quote from 3creativeASIN=1576752267creative=373489camp=211189The Power of Appreciative Inquiry: A Practical Guide to Positive Change sums up the mindset of this field well. We are not saying to deny or ignore problems. What we are saying is that if you want to transform a situation, a relationship, an organization, or community, focusing on strengths is much more effective than focusing on problems.    APPRECIATIVE APPROACH The Challenge The underlying belief of todays paradigm is that there is one best way to do things; one perfect way for an organization to be formed; one preferred way for employees to perform; one acceptable way for people to behave. We have been trained and educated from an early age to look for things in our human organizations that are not the best, perfect or preferred so that we can to fix them. We are a world of problem solvers. Our basic assumption of problem solving seems to be that organizations are problems to be solved. The process traditionally involves: (1) identifying the key problems; (2) analyzing the causes; (3) locating logical solutions; and, (4) developing an action plan. The result, change happens through a linear process that assumes we can repair human beings and organizations much as we might repair our car or computer. If we fix the problems, the organization will succeed. While this problem solving mentality has dominated business for years and led to some success, we are starting to see the limitations of this approach. The problem-solving approach directs attention to the worst of what is, constantly examining what is wrong with the organization. This continuous focus can have some very limiting and unintended consequences: We assume that because we know the problem, we must know the solution. No innovation. The organization creates no visions/images of the future. Breakthrough changes happens slowly, if at all, because we put attention on yesterdays causes. Visionless voice leading to organizational fatigue. Not another problem to deal with! Weakened fabric of relationships, defensiveness blameà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦the creation of a negative culture. However, recent advances in the sciences and other related fields of study are causing a shift in how we understand the world. This new research and experience is leading us to an entirely new way of thinking about our organizations and how we improve them. There is a BETTER way! A Positive Change Model The fact is that our organizations are not predictable machines, but rather human constructions that are molded and changed by the images that human beings have of them. If we think that our organization is dysfunctional, unhealthy, and a bad place to work, most of what we see will be the behaviors, attitudes, and values that prove us right. If, on the other hand, we look for those things in our organizations that are healthy, creative, and supportive, we will begin to see an entirely different organization. We actually have a choice on what we focus on and Appreciative Inquiry (AI) is a method that can help us see the true potential or our organization. In contrast to the problem solving approach, the underlying assumption of Appreciative Inquiry is that organizations are solutions to be embraced. AI Definition To appreciate means to value to understand those things that are worth valuing. To inquire means to study, to ask questions, to search. AI is, therefore, a capacity building approach that selectively seeks to locate, highlight, and illuminate the life-giving forces within an organization or community. AI seeks out the best of what is to help ignite the collective imagination of what might be.   The aim is to generate new knowledge that expands the realm of the possible and helps people envision a collectively desired future and to carry forth that vision in ways which successfully translates images of possibility into reality, and belief into practice. AI is not a methodology. It is a philosophy, an orientation to change, and a way of seeing and being in the world!   AI 4-D Model Tirawa Consulting uses a change process, called the 4-D Model (see below), that: (1) Discovers what gives life to an organization; what is happening when the organization is at its best; (2) Dreams about what might be; what the world is calling the organization to be; (3) Designs ways to create the ideal as articulated by the whole organization; and, (4) Delivers through an on-going and iterative processes. This is not a static solution but rather a dynamic process of continuous change. The 4-D Model has been used successfully in multiple cultures, in all sizes of organizations, working in every sector of relief and development, at every level of the organization. The 4-D Model has also produced tremendous results in the governmental and business sectors as well.   Tirawa Consulting can help integrate AI into your strategic change agenda and work with you to design a solution that will involve your people, identify your strengths, and chart a course for unbelievable transformation! Here are just a few examples of how AI can be used to drive your organization to higher levels of performance: Culture transformation Vision building Team building development Feedback performance management Organization redesign Partnership creation / relationship building Strategic Many other applications

Tuesday, August 20, 2019

The Pre-Raphaelites Essay -- Europe European History Essays

Pre-Raphaelites, a group made up of 19th-century English painters, poets, and critics who's work responded towards the practice of Victorian and neoclassical subject mater by developing bright imitations of religious work. More specifically, "and of the most beautiful are the paintings of the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood and their followers, bright and clear colours, fair women and themes from myths and legends."(Darkamber 1). The groups source of inspiration came from early Renaissance painters and medieval times. This was up until the time of the famous, well known, Raphael. Raphael was an Italian painter who imitated his teachers work so carefully that it was very difficult to decipher the two. His work also entailed architecture as did the Pre-Raphaelites. Another group that influenced the Pre-Raphaelites was the Nazarenes. They were young German artists who attempted to incorporate ideas from medieval Christian religion. "The Nazarene's principles were accuracy, a new look at the medieval past and intensity of feeling, both human literary and religious"(Darkamber 1). They formed a brotherhood in Rome which resembled and helped lead to part of the foundation that the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was built on. The PRB was started by Dante Gabriel Rossetti in 1848. William Michael Rossetti, John Everett Millais, William Holman Hunt, Frederick George Stephens, James Collinson, and Thomas Woolner were also part of the brotherhood. The group was composed of painters, sculpters, critics and poets. During their time the PRB started to copy significant styles of painting. Art sometimes is looked at being difficult to understand. The Royal Academy, which was founded in 1768, was the identity of British art which used dark melanc... ...e PRB, was still acclaimed for his work as a portrait artist in the years to follow and was made president of the Royal Academy in 1896, the last year of his life (McMullins, "PRB", 8). The Pre-Raphaelites took two forms of art, verbal and visual, used the two together and expressed the beauty in their art more efficiently. The PRB rebelled against the standards set by the contemporaries of the time period. They faced criticism from the Royal Academy, the Public eye, and influential men like Charles Dickens. On the other hand well known art critic John Ruskin defended the PRB’s positive ideas. As for the people of the time, they are today looked back upon as being stuck up and snobbish. Still today the ideas of the Pre-Raphaelites live on. "Thus the Pre-Raphaelites have left few lasting traces on modern thought, literature, art or social organization"(Gaunt 287).

Monday, August 19, 2019

No Romance Found in Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown :: Young Goodman Brown YGB

No Romance Found in Young Goodman Brown      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Nathaniel Hawthorne, in his short story, "Young Goodman Brown", generates a relationship in direct contrast with that of a true romance among the roles of Faith and Young Goodman Brown.   Whereas, a true romance is the ideal romance, exhibiting   virtuous aspects such as trust, as well as a burning passion and an undying love for one another.   The relationship which Young Goodman creates between himself and Faith is one that is unresponsive , and is based on distrust and a willingness on his part to abandon her.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Consequently, as far as passion and desire are concerned, someone quickly call Dr. Ruth because this marriage is in trouble.   After Faith asks Goodman not to depart that night, pleading, "pray tarry with me this night, dear husband, of all nights in the year", he answers her saying , "my journey must be done."   He then questions the sincerity of her "peculiar" plea asking whether she doubts him.   Since when is it such a farfetched request for a wife to ask her husband for company on a given night?   Does this request signify a lack of trust in her husband?   If anything, it illustrates a lack of self confidence in himself as well as a lack of trust in her.   In addition, after departing his wife, Goodman Brown states to the mysterious man he meets in the forest, that "Faith kept [him] back awhile."   This means that although both his wife, Faith, and his own faith delay him, they cannot stop him and thus aren't more important than committing this deed.      Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Furthermore, there is no evidence of his trust for her in the marriage.   Immediately after witnessing a pink ribbon fluttering down onto the branch of a tree, Young Goodman Brown cries out, " my Faith is gone!" By this statement, Goodman means that his wife has physically gone over to the devil and that his faith in her is gone.   This, thereby proves the absence of trust in his wife.   When he does see Faith in the forest, he yells to her to resist the devil, but is unsure of her ultmate decision. Therefore, upon his return to town, Hawthorne writes after that night, he "shrank from the bosom of Faith.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

The Elimination of the Middle Class Essay -- Globalization Economics

Globalization is the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network by transportation, communication, and trade. Through a global lens the process of globalization seems to be vital to the development of the modern world. As a result of globalization there has been a dramatic transition in every aspect of life around the world, more specifically in areas such as trade, immigration, and human development. International trade bolsters sales, lowers the cost of production and consumption, and extends the market reach of any corporation. This is beneficial to America in that consumers are able to buy more goods and services at lower costs and therefore the gross domestic product rises. In addition, with domestic consumers able to market their product on a global level foreign consumption rises. Immigration brings some of the same benefits as trade. Immigrant workers statistically work for lower wages and take jobs that are pu rportedly unappealing to native workers. This results in a lower cost to employers and an influx of workers. Whether legal or illegal, additional workers result in economic growth. Finally, globalization has facilitated human development through cultural diversity, broadening ideologies, and creating beneficial competition between nations. However, because the U.S. protects its citizens with labor laws and livable wages millions of manufacturing jobs are lost to inexpensive, overseas counterparts. While there are many benefits to fusing the world, globalization comes at a cost, the elimination of America’s middle class. Trade supports more than 50 million American workers who are employed by companies that export their goods, accounting for almost 40... ... ease of transportation and sharing of information people are now exposed to infinite worldviews and ideologies. Nations are able to use each other as benchmarks for improving themselves and improving the conditions of their citizens. However, globalization has also created an environment that forces companies to send jobs abroad to remain competitive. The bulk of these jobs belong to the American middle class. If current trends continue the middle class will disappear and the United States will have only the rich and the poor with great disparity in between. Works Cited

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Case Study of Starbucks

When the announcement was made in mid 2008 that Starbucks would be closing nearly three-quarters of its 84 Australian stores there was mixed reaction. Some people were shocked, others were triumphant. Journalists used every pun in the book to create a sensational headline, and it seemed everyone had a theory as to what went wrong. This case outlines the astounding growth and expansion of the Starbucks brand worldwide, including to Australia. It then shifts focus to describe the extent of the store closures in Australia, before offering several reasons for the failure and lessons that others might learn from the case. . Background Founded in 1971, Starbucks' first store was in Seattle's Pike Place Market. By the time it went public in 1992, it had 140 stores and was expanding at a breakneck pace, with a growing store count of an extra 40-60% a year. Whilst former CEO Jim Donald claimed that â€Å"we don't want to take over the world†, during the 1990s and early 2000s, Starbucks were opening on average at least one store a day (Palmer, 2008). In 2008 it was claimed to be opening seven stores a day worldwide.Not surprisingly, Starbucks is now the largest coffee chain operator in the world, with more than 15,000 stores in 44 countries, and in 2007, accounted for 39% of the world's total specialist coffee house sales (Euromonitor, 2008a). In North America alone, it serves 50 million people a week, and is now an indelible part of the urban landscape. But just how did Starbucks become such a phenomenon? Firstly, it successfully Americanised the European coffee tradition – something no other coffee house had done previously.Before Starbucks, coffee in its current form (latte, frappacino, mocha, etc. ) was alien to most US consumers. Secondly, Starbucks did not just sell coffee – it sold an experience. As founding CEO Howard Schultz explained, â€Å"We are not in the coffee business serving people, we're in the people business serving coffee† (Schultz and Yang, 1997). This epitomised the emphasis on customer service such as making eye contact and greeting each customer within 5 seconds, cleaning tables promptly and remembering the names of regular customers.From inception, Starbucks' purpose was to reinvent a commodity with a sense of romance, atmosphere, sophistication and sense of community (Schultz and Yang, 1997). Next, Starbucks created a ‘third place' in people's lives – somewhere between home and work where they could sit and relax. This was a novelty in the US where in many small towns cafe culture consisted of filter coffee on a hot plate. In this way, Starbucks positioned itself to not only sell coffee, but also offer an experience. It was conceived as a lifestyle cafe.The establishment of the cafe as a social hub, with comfortable chairs and music has been just as important a part of the Starbucks brand as its coffee. All this came with a premium price. While people were aware that the beverages at Starbucks were more expensive than at many cafes, they still frequented the outlets as it was a place ‘to see and be seen'. In this way, the brand was widely accepted and became, to an extent, a symbol of status, and everyone's must-have accessory on their way to work.So, not only did Starbucks revolutionise how Americans drank coffee, it also revolutionised how much people were prepared to pay. Consistency of product across stores, and even national boundaries, has been a hallmark of Starbucks. Like McDonald's, Starbucks claims that a customer should be able to visit a store anywhere in the world and buy a coffee exactly to specification. This sentiment is echoed by Mark Ring, CEO of Starbucks Australia who stated â€Å"consistency is really important to our customers †¦ a consistency in the product . . . he overall experience when you walk into a cafe . . . the music . . . the lighting . . . the furniture . . . the person who is working the bar†. So, whilst th ere might be slight differences between Starbucks in different countries, they all generally look the same and offer the same product assortment. One way this is ensured is by insisting that all managers and partners (employees) undergo 13 weeks of training – not just to learn how to make a coffee, but to understand the nuances of the Starbucks brand (Karolefski, 2002) and how to deliver on its promise of a service experience.The Starbucks formula also depends on location and convenience. Starbucks have worked under the assumption that people are not going to visit unless it's convenient, and it is this assumption that underlies their highly concentrated store coverage in many cities. Typically, clusters of outlets are opened, which has the effect of saturating a neighbourhood with the Starbucks brand. Interestingly, until recently, they have not engaged in traditional advertising, believing their large store presence and word-ofmouth to be all the advertising and promotion t hey need.Starbucks' management believed that a distinctive and memorable brand, a product that made people ‘feel good' and an enjoyable delivery channel would create repeat business and customer loyalty. Faced with near-saturation conditions in the US – by 2007 it commanded 62% of the specialist coffee shop market in North America (Table 1 ) – the company has increasingly looked overseas for growth opportunities.As part of this strategy, Starbucks opened its first Australian store in Sydney in 2000, before expanding elsewhere within New South Wales and then nationwide (albeit with 90% of stores concentrated in just three states: NSW, Victoria and Queensland). By the end of 2007 Starbucks had 87 stores, enabling it to control 7% of the specialist coffee shop market in Australasia (Table 1 ). By 2008, consumer awareness of Starbucks in Australia was 90% (Shoebridge, 2008), with each outlet selling, on average, double the number of coffees (270 a day) than the rest of Australia's coffee shops (Lindhe, 2008). . Expansion into Asia Starbucks currently operates in 44 markets and even has a small presence in Paris – birthplace and stronghold of European cafe culture. Beyond North America, it has a very significant share of the specialist coffee shop market in Western Europe, Asia Pacific and Latin America (Table 1) and these regions make strong revenue contributions (Table 2). It is in Asia that they see the most potential for growth as they face increasing competitive pressure in their more traditional markets.Half the international stores Starbucks plans to operate in the next decade will be in Asia (Euromonitor, 2006; Browning, 2008). Indeed, Starbucks has done well in international markets where there has not traditionally been a coffee drinking culture, namely Japan, Thailand, Indonesia and China. In effect it has been responsible for growing the category in these markets. The first Starbucks outside the US opened in Tokyo in 1996, and since then, Starbucks' Japanese stores have become twice as profitable as the US stores.Unsurprisingly then, Japan is Starbucks' best performing overseas market outside North America. More than 100 new stores open each year in Japan, and coffee is now more popular than tea in terms of both volume and value (Lee, 2003; see also Uncles, 2008). As opposed to their entry into the Australian market, Starbucks made small changes to its formula for the Japanese market; for example, the invention of a green tea frappucino, and the provision of smaller drinks and pastries to conform to local tastes.Starbucks arrived in China in 1998 and by 2002 had 50 outlets, and 165 outlets by 2006 (BBC News, 2006), quickly becoming the nation's leading coffee chain. Starbucks now sees China as its key growth market due to the size and preferences of the emerging middle class. In the Asia-Pacific region, Starbucks command of the specialist coffee shop market grew from 15% in 2002 to 19% in 2007 (refer to Table 2). The total market for cafes in China grew by over 135% between 1999 and 2004 to reach US$2. 6 billion.It is projected to grow another 144% by 2008 to reach US$6. 4 billion in sales. More specialty coffee shops are opening across China as a middle class with strong purchasing power emerges, although this rise in coffee consumption is highly concentrated in large cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. Starbucks has said that it expects China to become its biggest market after the US and the plan is to open 100 stores a year (Euromonitor, 2006). Significantly, certain Western brands are valued by Chinese consumers and Starbucks appears to be one of them.A growing number of China's 500 million urbanites favour Starbucks for its ambience, which is seen as an important signal of service quality, and Starbucks' design concept rests easily with China's consumers, who tend to lounge with friends while sipping coffee. Its outlets in China frequently maintain larger seating a reas than average outlets in other countries, and plush chairs and davenports are provided to accommodate crowds that linger. However, success for Starbucks in China is not a given, and they will face several challenges in the coming years.China's accession to the WTO has led to the gradual relaxation of the policy governing foreign-owned retail outlets, and this will lead to more foreign investment and thereby competition (Lee, 2004). Several multinationals are engaged in selling coffee (including KFC, McDonald's, Yoshinoya, and Manabe), and a number of local brands have recently emerged, some even imitating Starbucks' distinctive green and white logo and its in-store ambience (notably Xingbake in Shanghai). Furthermore, the reduction of import tariffs on coffee will also encourage foreign investment in coffee. . The Australian retail coffee industry Australia's taste for coffee is a by-product of the waves of immigrants arriving on the country's shores following World War II. Euro pean migrants, predominantly Greeks and Italians, were the first to establish the coffee culture, which was later embraced more widely in the 1 980s. For decades Australians enjoyed a variation of the ‘lifestyle coffee experience' that Starbucks created from scratch in the US. Australians did not need to be introduced to the concept of coffee as many other countries did.Savouring a morning cup of coffee was already a ritual for many consumers. It is fair to describe Australia's coffee culture as mature and sophisticated, so when Starbucks entered Australia in 2000, a thriving urban cafe culture was already in place. This established culture saw Australians typically patronise smaller boutique style coffee shops, with people willing to travel out of their way for a favoured cup of coffee, especially in Melbourne where coffee has developed an almost cult-like following.For Australians, coffee is as much about relationships as it is about the product, suggesting that an impersona l, global chain experience would have trouble replicating the intimacy, personalisation and familiarity of a suburban boutique cafe. Furthermore, through years of coffee drinking, many Australians, unlike American or Asian consumers, have developed a sophisticated palate, enjoying their coffee straighter and stronger, and without the need to disguise the taste with flavoured, syrupy shots. This love of coffee is easily quantified. The Australian market is worth $3 billion, of which $1. billion relates to the coffee retailing market. For every cup of coffee consumed out of home, two cups are consumed at home (AustraIAsian Specialty Coffee Association, 2006). Per capita consumption is now estimated at 2. 3 kg-twice as much as 30 years ago. Whilst Australians are among the highest consumers of instant coffee in the world, they are increasingly buying coffee out of the home (Euromonitor, 2008c). More than 1 billion cups of coffee are consumed in cafes, restaurants and other outlets each year, representing an increase of 65% over the last 10 years.Even between 2000 and 2005, trade sales of coffee have increased about 18%. In 2007, the growth in popularity of the cafe culture resulted in trade volume sales growing at an annual rate of 5%. Some 31% of the coffee sold through foodservice is takeaway, and it is thought that ‘fast coffee' will be a growth area in future years (Euromonitor, 2008d). There is also a trend towards larger takeaway sizes, with 400 ml cups increasing in popularity (Euromonitor, 2008d). One might argue that Starbucks drove these trends, especially in regards to larger sizes.There are almost 14,000 cafes and restaurants serving a variety of coffee types in Australia, and during 2006/07, they generated $9. 7 billion in income (Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2008). However, despite these statistics, the coffee business does not guarantee success. As Paul Irvine, co-founder of Gloria Jean's notes, â€Å"Australia is a tough retail market a nd coffee retailing is particularly tough†. According to official statistics, the cafe business is not always profitable, with the net profitability of cafes falling to about 4%.For a cafe to be successful, it has to offer marginally better coffee than local competitors, and do so consistently. Coffee drinkers in Australia are discerning, and they will go out of their way to purchase a good cup of coffee. They are not as easily persuaded as people from other countries simply to visit their nearest cafe. Secondly, for a cafe to make a profit, it needs to turn over 15 kg of coffee a week The national average is 11 kg, so a cafe has to be above average to begin with to even make a profit. Any newcomer needs to understand this before entering the market.The other significant constraint on profitability is the cost of hiring baristas, with a good one costing between $1000 and $1500 a week (Charles, 2007). However, it seems that this is a necessary cost in order to deliver a superio r product. The question that then begs to be asked is: How well did Starbucks understand this existing coffee culture? Did they under-estimate the relational aspect of coffee purchasing in Australia, as well as the importance of the quality of ingrethents and the skills of the person making each cup?Did they overestimate the value consumers attach to the in-store experience and the ‘third place' concept? Or did they just look at the statistics regarding coffee consumption and think that operating in Australia was a license to print money? Did they simply see Australia as the next logical step to global domination? Starbucks has 87% of the US specialty coffee shop market, and only now is it beginning to feel pressure from non-traditional competitors such as Dunkin Donut, 7 Eleven, McCafe and Krispy Kreme (Burritt, 2007).However, in Australia, the competitive landscape is different. Gloria Jean's dominates the high-street part of the coffee retailing market and McCafe dominates the convenience end (Shoebridge, 2008). Other significant competitors include The Coffee Club and Wild Bean Cafe (an add-on to BP petrol stations) and Hudson's Coffee (see Table 3). All offer a similar in-store experience to Starbucks, with McCafe from 2007 onwards refurbishing many McDonald's stores to imitate the Starbucks' experience, albeit at the economy end of the market. 5. Growth grinds to a halt . . . store closuresIn recent times however things have started to go wrong for Starbucks. Internationally, company earnings declined as cashstrapped consumers faced record petrol prices and rising interest rates meaning they have had to pull back on gourmet coffee and other luxuries. Sales fell 50% in the last 2 years, the US share price fell more than 40% over the past year and profits dropped 28% (Bawden, 2008; Coleman-Lochner and Stanford, 2008; Mintz, 2008). Consequently, Howard Schultz, the founder and chairman of Starbucks, resumed the position of CEO in 2008 with the aim of revitalising the business.He slowed the pace at which stores were opened (and in fact closed more stores than he will open in the coming year), introduced key performance targets (KPTs) and an employee rewards system in the US, and simultaneously shut down every store in America for three and a half hours of staff training (Muthukumar and Jain, 2008). Customer-oriented initiatives have included the addition of more food, the launch of the Starbucks card and Starbucks express, and the provision of high-speed wi-fi internet access (Hota, 2008).Notably, Schultz acknowledges that the company's focus has been more on expansion than on customer service – the very thing that was at the heart of its unique value proposition. However, it seems that these measures were too late for the Australian operation. On 29th July 2008, Starbucks announced that it would be closing 61 of its 84 Australian stores (i. e. , 73%) by August 2008, resulting in a loss of 685 jobs. All of these stores had been under-performing (8 were in SA, ACT and Tasmania, 28 in NSW, 17 in Victoria and 8 in Queensland).This decline of Starbucks in Australia was not as sudden as many would have us believe and in fact some reports (Edwards and Sainsbury, 2008; Shoebridge, 2008) indicated that by late 2007 Starbucks already had: * accumulated losses of $143 million; * a loss of $36 million for that financial year; * lost $27. 6 million the previous financial year; * loans of $72. 3 million from Starbucks in the US; * was only surviving because of its US parent's support. These closures saw 23 stores kept open in prime locations in Sydney, Melbourne and Brisbane. But this begs the question: can a 23-store chain be viable for the brand in the long-term?Based on the approximate numbers in Table 3, Starbucks had a 6% share of stores in Australia before the closures; this has now fallen to a share below 2%. Even before the closures, Australasia represented only 1% of company sales (Table 2) and now the f igure is expected to be much lower. This may not make much commercial sense as it will be difficult to achieve economies of scale in terms of marketing and purchasing, and such small numbers are totally out of step with the clustering strategy adopted in its strongest markets -the US, Japan and China.However, it could also be argued that with Starbucks' strategy of global domination, it is unlikely that it will ever close its Australian business entirely. Whilst Starbucks' management have been keen to suggest that â€Å"this decision represents business challenges unique to the Australian market and in no way reflects the state of the Starbucks business in countries outside of the United States†, the US market has also suffered. By September 2008, 600 stores had closed (or were due for closure), with about 12,000 workers, or 7% of Starbucks' global workforce affected (Mintz, 2008).It should be noted that the situation in the US has only worsened as a result of the global fina ncial crisis. 6. So what went wrong? Opinions abound as to why Starbucks failed in Australia. Our research suggests there is some truth to many of these opinions. Whilst the troubled economy might seem an easy scapegoat, with people tightening their belts and eating out less, it is unlikely that this was the core problem as evidenced by the continuing growth of their competitors. Indeed, coffee is no longer considered a luxury item by many Australians, but rather an affordable part of their daily routine.Instead, there is substantial evidence to suggest a number of factors combined to bring about Starbucks' demise. 6. 1. Starbucks overestimated their points of differentiation and customer perceived value of their supplementary services â€Å"I just think the whole system, the way they serve, just didn't appeal to the culture we have here† Andrew Mackay, VP of the Australian Coffee Traders Association, in Martin (2008) Whilst there was initial curiosity and hype about Starbuck s, after trying it, many Australians quickly found that it failed to offer a particularly unique experience that was not offered by other chains or cafes.Given the strong established coffee culture and discerning palates of Australians, the core product – coffee – was not seen as particularly different from, say, a latte or short black from a good suburban barista, Gloria Jean's or Coffee Club. Its point of difference in Australia, where a coffee culture already existed, had to be in its supplementary or value-adding services – i. e. , its unique servicescape, engaging customer service, brand image and so on (Lovelock et al. , 2007).But was this worth a premium price, especially as the competition began replicating Starbucks in-store experience? Starbucks has since been harshly criticised by Australian consumers and the media. Their coffee has been variously described as ‘a watered down product', ‘gimmicky', and consisting of ‘buckets of milk'. These are not the labels you would choose to describe a coffee that aspires to be seen as a ‘gourmet' product. It has also been criticised for its uncompetitive pricing, even being described as â€Å"one of the most over-priced products the world has ever seen† (Martin, 2008).Even the idea of the third place has come under criticism – â€Å"why would you want to sit around a pretend lounge room drinking a weak and expensive coffee when you can go around the corner and have the real thing? † (Wailes, 2008). It seems that Starbucks' rapid expansion, its omnipresence, somewhat standardised store design and recent insistence on staff achieving various sales KPTs (key performance targets) such as serving ‘x' customers per hour, all combined to diminish the instore experience. The introduction of sales targets for front-line employees, for example, meant staff and baristas had less time to engage with customers.It began to stray too far from its roots and the very values upon which the brand was built. Some of these actions were forced upon Starbucks by emerging competitors seeking to imitate the brand, and thus gain a slice of the ever growing lifestyle coffee market. Starbucks' points of differentiation were systematically being eroded and, in a sense, the brand that taught the world that coffee is not a commodity was itself becoming one. 6. 2. Declining service quality The brand has also come under fire for declining customer service as it continued to expand.For example, the quality of baristas is said to have declined as Starbucks widened its pool of applicants in order to meet demand at new stores. Can a 17 year old high school student really compete with a boutique trained barista with a passion for coffee? By not offering a better experience and product than emerging direct competitors, Starbucks found itself undermined by countless high street cafes and other chains that were selling stronger brews at lower prices and often offering better or equal hospitality.Whilst they may have pioneered the idea of a ‘third place', it was an easy idea to copy, and even easier to better by offering superior coffee, ambience and service. Now, with so many coffee chains around, Starbucks have little point of differentiation, even wi-fi internet access has become commonplace across all types of cafe. Furthermore, while customers were offered promotional rewards for returning to Starbucks, the card-based scheme is no more sophisticated than equivalent me-too cards at Gloria Jean's, Coffee Club, Hudson's and many independent cafes.And as noted earlier, one of the things that set Starbucks apart from the competition – i. e. , acknowledging customers (often by name for regulars) within a few seconds of entering the store and seriously engaging with them, began to unravel when Starbucks imposed both customer service and sales targets for its cafes. The imposition of these targets plus an ever widening range an d complexity of coffees to remember and make to perfection, meant staff morale and inevitably customer service levels declined. In fact in the USA some staff were so disillusioned with the imposition of sales targets because it meant they simply didn't have time to engage with customers) they posted blogs openly stating that Starbucks had lost its way. Finally, it appears that Starbucks were not even delivering on their core promise of serving superior coffee in comfortable surroundings, thus justifying its premium price. By switching to vacuum packaged coffee, consumers are denied the store-filling aroma of the coffee beans. The switching of traditional coffee machines to automated espresso machines (which can make coffees 40% faster and move customers through the lines more quickly), has also resulted in a loss of ‘theatre' (Grove et al. 2000) for people wanting to see their coffee made that way and has also had implications for taste. In-store, it has been noted that there are fewer soft chairs and less carpeting, and Starbucks recently lost ground in the ‘service and surroundings' category of the Brand Keys 2007 Customer Loyalty Engagement Index (Cebrzynski, 2008). It seems that Starbucks is now less about the quality of the coffee, and is more about the convenience of faster service and being on every corner – whilst still charging a premium. 6. 3. Starbucks ignored some golden rules of international marketingIronically, it seems that the very thing that made Starbucks successful in the first place, its ability to adjust the original (European) business model and coffee tradition to local (US) conditions, is the thing that let it down. Whilst Starbucks has made minor changes to its menu in countries such as Japan and Saudi Arabia, it generally offers the same products all around the world. When the company came to Australia, it brought its ‘American' offering, simply bringing what worked in the US and applying it here, without rea lly understanding the local market.But with more than 235 ethnicities speaking more than 270 languages and dialects, companies wanting to get ahead in Australia need to be aware that they are not dealing with one homogeneous market. Unfortunately what worked in the US was â€Å"bitter, weak coffee augmented by huge quantities of milk and sweet flavoured syrups. Not so much coffee, as hot coffee-based smoothies†. For the Australian consumer raised on a diet of real espresso, this was always going to be a tough sell (Mescall, 2008) As McDonald's Australia chief executive Peter Bush noted, US retailers that have had trouble making it work in Australia (e. . , Starbucks, Denny's, Arby's, Taco Bell) are those that have â€Å"introduced formulae developed for US palates and for the US way of doing business . . . These formulae have, at best, modest relevance in Australia†. Peter Irvine, co-founder of Gloria Jean's, also noted that â€Å"US retailers often arrive in Australi a thinking the size of their overseas chains and the strength of their brands in other markets will make it easy for them to crack the local market. Their focus is on global domination rather than the needs of the local consumers†.Further, there is a strong sense in Australia of buying local, supporting the community, having relationships with the people you buy from, and supporting ethically-minded businesses. Starbucks clashed completely with that, whereas local stores can differentiate themselves as being local and non-corporate. Furthermore, some would argue that Starbucks has become a caricature of the American way of life and many Australians reject that iconography. Many are simply not interested in the ‘super-size' culture of the extra-large cups, nor want to be associated with a product that is constantly in the hands of movie stars. 6. 4.Expanding too quickly and forcing themselves upon an unwilling public In the US, Starbucks started in Seattle as a single sto re. In a nation bereft of a genuine cafe culture, that single store captured people's imagination, and soon became a second store, quickly followed by a third. Before long, Starbucks had become a demand-driven phenomenon, with everyone wanting a Starbucks in their local area. McDonald's grew exactly the same way in Australia, opening just one or two stores in each city – nowhere near enough to meet demand – thus creating an almost artificial scarcity, which created huge buzz around the brand experience.Krispy Kreme did the same. But when Starbucks opened in Australia, they immediately tried to impose themselves with multiple store openings in every city – adopting the US-model of expansion through store clusters. Australians were not given a chance to ‘discover' it. As Mescali (2008) points out â€Å"they took key sites, hung huge signs, made us order coffee in sizes and gave the coffees weird names. Starbucks said to us – ‘that's not how you drink coffee. This is how you drink coffee'†.They took the Coca-Cola strategy of being available wherever people looked, but this quickly led to market saturation. Their expansion did not hurt their competitors so much as themselves, and they found themselves cannibalising their own stores. Furthermore, by becoming too common, the company violated the economic principles of cultural scarcity and the novelty wore off. By having too many outlets, becoming too commercial and too widely used, it began to lose its initial appeal of status and exclusivity. It began to have a mass brand feel, certainly not the warm feeling of a neighbourhood cafe.Furthermore, they became more reliant on less affluent consumers who now, with a worsening economy, are spending less, making Starbucks more vulnerable to economic fluctuations. 6. 5. Entering late into a highly competitive market â€Å"In America, Starbucks is a state of mind. In Australia, it was simply another player. † Barry Urqu hart, quoted in Delaney (2008) From Day I1 Starbucks got off on the back foot. They lacked the first-mover advantage they had in the US and Asia, finding themselves the late entrant in an already very developed, sophisticated and competitive market.Indeed, the competitive landscape in the Australian retail coffee market is very different to that of other countries. Here, Starbucks found themselves competing with hundreds of independent cafes and speciality coffee chains (see Table 3), where the coffee was generally better and the staff knew their customers by name. Significantly, they were also the last of the major chains to gain a presence in Australia. 6. 6. Failing to communicate the brand Worldwide, Starbucks rarely employs above-the-Iine promotion, and this was also the case in Australia.Instead, they maintained that their stores are the core of the business and that they do not need to build the brand through advertising or promotion. Howard Shultz often preached, â€Å"Buil d the (Starbucks') brand one cup at a time,† that is, rely on the customer experience to generate word-of-mouth, loyalty and new business. But in a market as competitive as Australia, with a consumer whose palate is discerning and whose loyalty often lies with a specific barista, advertising and promotion was essential to communicate the Starbucks message.The issue is not so much about building awareness – which, at 90%, is high – but to communicate what the brand means and to give consumers reasons for patronising Starbucks. Their lack of advertising made this branding issue even worse, with many people unable to articulate why they should be loyal to Starbucks. At the same time, competitors were communicating their messages very effectively – McDonald's, for instance, is a heavy spending, award-winning, advertiser in the Australian market.Added to which, more subversive counter-messages were coming from those who saw in Starbucks a ‘brand bully' ri ding rough shod over the nuanced tastes and preferences of local cultures (Klein, 2000; Clark, 2008). In other words, a range of strong contrary messages were undermining Starbucks' own very limited communications. 6. 7. Unsustainable business model Starbucks' product line is limited primarily to coffee. Sometimes a new product idea will be developed, such as the Frappucino, but these tend to have limited product life cycles and/or are seasonal.For example, the Frappucino has traditionally made up 15% of (summer) sales, but recently sales have been down, suggesting that customers are already bored with it (Kiviat, 2008). Furthermore, in the instance where other products were offered, people failed to purchase them as they only really associate Starbucks with coffee and generally seek food elsewhere. This is a very different model to The Coffee Club which has much more of a cafe feel to it, or McDonald's which has a full range of breakfast and lunch/dinner items that can be complemen ted by a McCafe latte.Hence the average transaction value at Starbucks is lower than its competitors, and therefore more customers must pass through its doors to reach the sales and profit levels of its competitors. It also creates conflict with the Starbucks ethos of the third place (and allowing people to sit around for 30 minutes sipping lattes and reading, talking or surfing) versus the need to get people in and out quickly and not take up valuable ‘real estate' (which in itself means that the average Starbucks store needs to be much bigger than the average cafe).Unlike most of the other retail coffee chains, Starbucks does not use a franchise model, preferring to lease and fit-out its own outlets. This means more cash is being spent upfront, and in Starbucks' case, more debt accrued. But adopting a franchise model would have numerous other advantages than just minimising this. It would mean that local investors, with a good sense of the local market, put their own money i nto the business and take an active role in running it and shaping its direction. 7.What are the main lessons from this case study? Several key lessons emerge that should be of interest to both domestic and international marketers. 7. 1. Crossing international borders is risky and clearly Starbucks did not do their homework, or ignored their homework Well conceived market research involving both primary and secondary data, including qualitative and quantitative approaches, would have uncovered the extent of the ‘coffee culture' that existed in 2000 when Starbucks entered the Australian market.It seems inconceivable that Starbucks management, or at least its Australian representatives, were not sufficiently apprised of the extent to which many consumers were already well acculturated in terms of buying and consuming European styles of coffees such as short black, lattes and cappuccinos, nor the extent to which many customers were in fact loyal to their suburban cafe or competit ive brands such as Gloria Jean's. As a late market entrant, Starbucks clearly failed to do thorough homework on the market before entry – this is a failure in terms of due diligence.Alternatively, they chose to ignore the messages that were coming from any due diligence that they had undertaken. This may or may not have been due to some arrogance on the part of Starbucks, or due to the fact that they considered they had a strong global brand which would meet with universal acceptance. An example of where Starbucks did do its homework, and act on it, was in France when it entered that market in 2006, establishing a cafe in the middle of Paris.Research had clearly shown the American way of consuming and socialising over a coffee was an anathema to many French, so Starbucks held back from entering the French market and when they finally entered it was with great trepidation, expanding at a very slow pace and testing the market at every step. 7. 2. â€Å"Think global but act loc al† This familiar maxim in international marketing should be well understood. While Starbucks had brand awareness as a major global brand, it failed to adapt the product and the customer experience to many mature coffee drinkers in Australia.As noted earlier, all the evidence suggests that it simply tried to transplant the American experience into the Australian market without any adaptation. In particular, it failed to adapt either its core product or its supplementary services to create the intimacy, personalisation and familiarity that is associated with established boutique cafes in Australia. 7. 3. Establish a differential advantage and then strive to sustain it A question of strategy that Starbucks perhaps failed to address was, â€Å"Is our product differentiation sustainable in the long term and does it ontinue to justify a price premium? † As noted earlier, it can be argued that the core product in this case, that is the coffee itself, is essentially a commodit y, and that Starbucks' coffee, according to many consumers, was no different to the competition, and in some cases inferior. Then Starbucks' points of difference clearly revolved around its brand image and supplementary services. It was these supplementary services, such as its unique servicescape and excellent customer service, that they used to justify a premium price. However, as competitors (e. g. The Coffee Club) quickly imitated the ‘Starbucks experience' (i. e. , their supplementary services, ambiance, etc. ), by providing premium coffee and an intimate casual experience, Starbucks' value proposition began to fade. In other words, their key points of difference could be easily imitated and were not sustainable. Faced with this scenario, the onus was on management to re-fresh and evolve any lingering differential advantage that Starbucks might have had or, at the very least, give customers reasons to continue patronising Starbucks through its communications. 7. 4.Don't l ose sight of what made you successful in the first place As more and more competitors emerged, both individual cafes and chains such as Gloria Jean's and The Coffee Club, competitive pressures forced Starbucks to impose rigid sales targets on their frontline staff including baristas to increase store productivity. However, the imposition of these KPTs and the pressure to serve more customers more quickly meant that Starbucks forgot the very thing that made it unique in the early days, namely, to provide a customer experience in an intimate casual setting that set it aside from competitors.As more pressure was placed on staff to have higher throughput, this meant that baristas and other employees had little time to engage with customers. In other words, Starbucks forgot about the very things that made it unique in the first place. This is akin to the Wheel of Retailing hypothesis (Hollander, 1960) where a no-frills retailer gradually moves upmarket in terms of variety of product, pri ce and more services and within several years finds itself competing with the more established premium supermarkets that were the very competitors that they tried to distance themselves from in the first place.The only difference with Starbucks is that it reversed the direction of the Wheel – by gradually moving downmarket it brought itself into direct competition with cheaper operators and lost sight of what made it successful in the first place. 7. 5. Consider the viability of the business model It has to be questioned whether the Starbucks' business model is viable in the long term, or even the medium term. A business model that uses a premium price to justify the excessive floor space and elaborate servicescape, and allows customers to sit in this environment for an hour sipping one latte, has to be questioned.Given that Starbucks do not have the array of products that, say, a McDonald's might have and, as documented earlier in this case, therefore do not generate the sam e sales volumes and revenues, it is hard to see how the Starbucks' model is financially viable. 8. Conclusion In summary, it appears on all the evidence that Starbucks not only misjudged the Australian coffee culture but also misjudged the extent of the competition, and failed to adapt its offering to the local market.Furthermore, with the advent of high quality barista training, the availability of premium coffee beans and the technology to produce a high quality cup of coffee (at a modest cost), sole operators who knew their customers by name, were able to set up business as viable competitors. 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