Monday, January 27, 2020

Effect of Gender Labels on Infants

Effect of Gender Labels on Infants INFANT PERCEIVED GENDER AND ADOLESCENTS’RATING Table of Contents (Jump to) INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW RECENT RESEARCHES METHOD PARTICIPANTS: DESIGN/LAYOUT: MATERIAL UTILIZED: PROCEDURE RESULTS DISCUSSION PART ONE: Psychological Observational Measure †¢ Name of the instrument/Scale/Measure/Inventory/Checklist: The research is available on the debate: Infant perceptions and adolescents’ ratings †¢ Behavior measured: Psychological research has been proposed. †¢ Author: †¢ Date of publication: 19.01.2014 †¢ Time of administration: 05:00 PM GST †¢ Population for which designed: Parents and minor children †¢ Method of Administration: Basic/ enlarged †¢ Source of Information: Website and journals/publications †¢ Number of items: INTRODUCTION, LITERATURE REVIEW, RECENT RESEARCHES, METHOD, PROCEDURE, RESULTS DISCUSSION. †¢ Permission required to use the measure: No †¢ If you need a permission-from whom: nil †¢ Source contact information (email): PART TWO: Research Proposal-Psychological Scale INTRODUCTION The term attachment is generally defined as an enduring affectional bond with a substantial intensity and durability. Dr. Bowlby in his research papers defines and describes attachment as a fundamental behavioral system which is substantially attached to predictable outcomes in keeping an individual in close proximity to one or a few significant others. (Dr.Bowlby, October 1994) Mc Clure Elin B in his psychological bulletin defines Infant perceived gender and adolescents ratings as a meta-analytic review in sex differences in facial expression processing and their development in infants, children and adolescents. Many researchers agree that gender role socialization begins and is adopted at a very early stage or infants birth. Most parents, at the time of birth of a child are interested in learning whether their newborn child is a boy or a girl and intentionally or not, this knowledge places with them a set of expectations about sex role appropriate traits. Empirical research suggests and marks carefully that these initial expectations, which form the very early and basis of gender schemas can have a significant effect on parents perceptions of and behaviour towards infants (McClure B, 2000). Gender statistics contributes a lot to adult, responsiveness towards the child and his own behaviour towards socializing and development of the childs sense of self. A self-fulfilling prophecy process is needed to attain a gender role socialization and a sex-typed behaviour and it is generally attained in connection with stereo-typed expectations(Darley and Fazio,1980).a prejudice and a preconceived gender based expectations process entitles the infant to ellicit an expected behaviour and further on reinforces this expected behaviour when it occurs and this is supposed to confirm parents initial expectations. (Bell Carver, 1980) LITERATURE REVIEW Recent researches have explored and demonstrated sex-typed labels and effect of infant gender on adults assignment and created adult sex-typed infants. These research have explored vast subject population and children of varying ages. Children as a primary source of information, parents in one study, were asked to rate and describe their new-borns shortly after their birth. Although the infants were not discriminated and differentiated on objective measures, girls were rated as smaller, more soft, more fine-featured and inattentive as compared to boys or male infants. Culp et al, found out that parents react differently to their unfamiliar infants due to preconceived sex assumptions and supported the notion(through other researches included) that parents react differently towards their male and female infants. This research suggests that parents are inclined to perceive traits in an infant, in consistency with gender labels. Also Fagot, suggests that parents of toddlers reacted differently towards girls and boys behavior. Parents reacted more positively to girls as compared to boys when toddlers played with dolls and reacted more critically towards girls as compared to boys when toddlers were engaged in motor activity. As a group these researches suggest that adult responses coincide with culturally and socially assigned sex-stereotypes and supposedly gender labels which are independent of actual infant gender differences. These studies suggest that how expectations and gender labels assigned to the infant affect both the reactions and behaviour o f the adults. (Culp, Cook, S., Housley, 1983) RECENT RESEARCH Although researches have examined sex stereo-typing of infants by adults, parents in particular, few researches have explored childrens or adolescents sex-typing of infants. Stern and Karrekar studied the sex-biased perceptions and presumptions of infants who were labeled as either male or female and concluded that adults perceptions are rarely influenced by basic knowledge of infants sex. However, research also suggests that young children rate infants in a sex-typed fashion much more frequently than adults. None of the studies included in the review examination examined sex-stereotyping of infants by older children or adolescents. One study suggests that how sex-specified perceptions of infants change during the early adolescent period ranging from high school to middle school (junior-aged)ages. A number of studies have examined adolescents sex-stereotyping of older individuals in addition to adolescents sex-stereotyped perceptions of infants. Many researchers examined that sex ste reotyping increases between ages of 3 and 14. Some studies have suggested curvilinear relationship between age and sex stereotyping relative among younger subjects and adolescents using sex stereotypes less than other children. However most of these studies suggest a rise in sex stereotyping from pre-school through middle childhood, then showing a plateau, and then a decline and a decrease in adolescence. (Fagot, 1978) The main purpose of this study includes a systemmatic examination of infants perceived gender on adolescents ratings towards the infants. However, some studies suggest that differences in the ratings of perceived male or a perceived female infant are a function of actual gender differentiation of the said observer, Older women particularly mothers, often give more positive ratings as compared to other subjects and girls tend to rate infants more beautiful as compared to boys do. Participants(subject population) is selected and attributed to represent adolescent age period(aged from 12 to 14 years )old. In consistency with Haugh et al and other studies being reviewed here, it is expected that the act of labeling infants with sex-typed first names will elicit responses among all other learned attributes associated with gender-category labels. Such genderization or gender category labels such as male or female will elicit a broad set of associated attributes. The prediction is that adolescents will use sex-related cues (i, e name of infant) to make evaluations about the infants given the minimal information about the infants. The second hypothesis states that, regardless to the name assigned to the infant, the males and females will perceive the infants in a different manner. (Condry Condry, 1976) METHOD PARTICIPANTS: Thirty six junior high students(aged 12 to 14 years) attending a public school in west Covinia, California are used as participants. The students are part of leadership class and the said school is located in a predominantly middle-lower class section of the society. The informed consent is being taken by parents or legal guardians of the junior high students and incentive is being given so that the students are persuaded to give their informed consent papers duly signed by the parents or the legal guardian. DESIGN/LAYOUT: The part of the study may be considered as a 2(gender specification of the adolescent)times 3(multiplied by 3) infant name condition between -subject factorials design because there are two independent variables. The gender of the adolescents have the two decidedly levels, â€Å"male or a female. However, the infant name condition has three levels i,e,Laurie, Larry and the control condition.The dependant measures includes adolescents ratings of the infants through six bipolar adjectives. MATERIAL UTILIZED: A color image or a photograph of a 3-year old infant is used for the above mentioned assumptions or conditions.The image of the infant is photo copied on 21.6x 27.9 cm paper.Several se-typed bipolar adjectives are being attached with the photograph. The first name of the infant changes changes in each condition. In one condition the infant will be assigned a gender-typed version of his first name Larry and in the control condition the name this infant will be used in place of his first name. PROCEDURE The procedure is very easy. Students will be tested in groups in three consecutive days. The parents or guardians are being informed the purpose of the study that how infants traits can be detected from their physical appearance. Twelve adolescents from the leadership class are assigned to each of the three gender-typed name conditions. Each group is tested on a separate given day. On each day the students are being told the importance of not telling other potential subjects the details of the underlying study and they are also told that they will be informed by the result and purpose of the study as soon as the research is compiled and completed. All students will be tested in the same classroom given the study carrels to block their views from one another. No distortion to be made. The instructions are given to each group of students in a loud and neutral tone. The students are being told that there are no wrong or right answers, however, the answers depend on their personal opinion. All questions be answered before the students start rating the answers. When the students are finished with their work, they are thanked for completing the contributing towards the research. RESULTS The six-bipolar adjectives will be rated by the adolescents in each condition of the independent variables.The result ranges from the values of 1-5.where 1 stands or means firm and 5 means soft.Scores on each of the bipolar adjective is analyzed.The maen and standard deviation of each condition of the independent variable is taken.The inferential statistics are performed in a two-way procedures between subjects ANOVA and Turkeys HSD are used to signify the groups differently. DISCUSSION The results will be restated in the light of above hypothesis. The results will be predicted and the generality of sex-stereotyped perceptions of infants are extended to the subject population of the adolescents. Results related to previous research and assessments with theoretical aspects of the introduction section will also be discussed. Limitations of the current research are being specified. One limitation is that we used one photograph of one particular infant more photographs of infants of various ages can be used in future research and evaluations. Finally the results and importance will be summarized. Bibliography Bell, N. J., Carver, W. (1980). A reevaluation of gender label effects: Expectant mothers’ responses to infants. Child Development. Bowlby, D. (October 1994). Adolescents perceptions of their attachment relationships with their mothers, fathers, and friends. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. Condry, J., Condry, S. (1976). Sex differences: A study of the eye of the beholder. Child Development. Culp, R. E., Cook, S., A., Housley, P. C. (1983). Sex Roles,. Fagot, B. I. (1978). The influences of sex of child on parental reactions to toddler children. Child development. McClure, B, E. (2000, May ). American Psycological Association. Retrieved from

Sunday, January 19, 2020

Retail Tracking Systems

Retail Tracking Systems Retail Pro or MicroStrategy? Retail Pro is Business Intelligence software that enables retail store owners to customize a â€Å"Point-of-Sale† (POS) method of retailing. The key feature of this software is the ability to create multiple revenues of sales inside one store. The software allows employees to select from an array of add-on modules to run a retail establishment using strategic planning and undergoing the various tasks involved operating a retail establishment.Retail Pro is flexible, easy to use, and accommodates small businesses to large corporations by increasing retention and customer satisfaction by creating the â€Å"better client experience†. (Retail Pro International, 2010) Retail Pro Software Features * Software infrastructure * Point of Sale and Store Operations * Merchandising * Central Customer Management * Central Returns Management * Oracle Database Engine This software creates very flexible reporting of business data you n eed at the time you need it.The POS and back office has extensive capabilities creating a work flow customized upon the needs of your business such as inventory management, purchase ordering, integration with payment solutions, store replenishment, receiving, and employee management. Retail Pro is perfect for businesses starting out small and grows as the business grows. There are several modules that are centrally focused on what types of products you sell in your retail establishment. Some of these modules are as listed: * Gifts and Toy Solutions Hard Goods Solutions * Home Furnishing Solutions * Specialty Apparel Solutions * Jewelry Solutions Each of these modules specialize in helping keep track of inventory, merchandising, customer management using role-specific dashboards capable of period to period analysis and reporting to improve business, store performance, and profit margins. The advantages of its Business Intelligence is that it saves time and money, improves profit marg ins, increases business and store performance, and maximizes returns on existing data sources. Retail Pro International, 2010) MicroStrategy is Business Intelligence Software for retail tracking systems in the palm of your hand. It’s the Mobile Business Intelligence that applies iPad as a business tool. You can access dashboards to create brilliant business analysis and reports any time, any where. Besides having extraordinary displays for data, MicroStrategy includes the following features: * Unlimited data analysis * Data mining * Forecasting * Operations Management * Executive decision makingMicroStrategy’s mobile iPhone and iPad views videos on YouTube and views Podcasts in iTunes. This mobile retail tracking system even comes with a free custom dashboard. The Business Intelligence Architecture is low in cost for ownership and delivers high performance and sophisticated analytics. If you are interested in Beta Programs, there are options one can participate. The fo llowing is what is included in MicroStrategy’s business applications: * Mobile Business Intelligence Financial Analysis * HR Analytics * Supply Chain Analytics * Sales Analytics * CRM * Balanced Scoreboard MicroStrategy is World Class Business Intelligence for all your business needs. It is very user friendly migrating from departmental Business Intelligence to enterprise Business Intelligence. MicroStrategy can develop and deploy department Business Intelligence applications quickly and deliver enterprise Business Intelligence with higher performance and efficiency. (MicroStrategy, 2010)I knew there was a strategy involved in running a retail establishment, but I did not realize that retail tracking systems available today creating your Point-of-Sale could be as easy as using the computer to keep track of the elements involved in various levels regarding merchandizing to keeping inventory, customer satisfaction to the â€Å"better client experience, and payment solutions to business analysis reports. It is wonderful to know that there are solutions you can implement that can make your business experience a good one!What features of a Point-of-Sale retail tracking system would be important to me would be directly related to how I plan to expand my business levels beyond the brick and mortar retail establishment. My boutique is going to retail various products that I create and design myself which includes fashion design apparel, jewelry, home decor items, Nature Crafts, custom-made gifts, and toys—items that are included inside my product labels of my brand. I would have to start out with a tracking system that meets these needs to run my retail establishment which are as follows: * Inventory Management system for each label separately Merchandising of products under each label separately * Payment Solutions that allow payment by other methods that are not cash purchases * Customer Management * Point-of-Sale options * Business Intelligence for a nalytical reports and business operations * Employee Management * Consumer behavior, geographical, economic, and social trends statistics * Security of business operations and store location I plan to add to my business by featuring instructional classes teaching various types of crafts a couple times a week, changing the activities when consumer interest and participation changes.I am also adding a new element of offering custom designed clothing and accessories upon customer request. A couple of my product labels will expand in the operations of how the product is presented to consumers by expanding the activities and product in various ways. Basically, the changes that will happen beyond the brick and mortar retail establishment will happen upon expanding the different business levels of each label, adding a few new features that compliment the products, and by getting customer participation teaching various art activities.I will also expand my marketing boundaries by adding a we bsite customers can purchase my products, contemplate the possibilities of creating a product catalog, and have certain products available to consumers placed in other stores that carry similar items. Plans of expansion beyond the retail location will need a more complex Point-of-sale retail tracking system than what would already be in place. Features I would consider important due to the changes of business operations at this point would be as follows: Multiple levels of sales reflecting the expansion of the various labels group * Website operations and Point-of-Sale system attached to various labels group * Packaging and drop shipping department added to business operations which will require a more complex system so that product sales are attached to correct label group * Retail accounts added to business revenue * Adding a Point-of-Sale system that involves the custom designed apparel made upon customer requests, or alterations made to purchased store apparel * Customizable Bus iness Intelligence features and POS system accommodating business expansion levelsBased upon my business needs at the beginning of my retail establishment, features that I would require of a POS retail tracking system would be relatively basic of retail operations and tasks. I would want to start my retail business operations with a POS tracking system that would allow the changes of various nature when I started to expand my business operations. Of the two tracking systems discussed in this report, Retail Pro and MicroStrategy Business Intelligence Software, the system I feel would be the best fit would be Retail Pro because of the versatility of the Business Intelligence features the software includes.Retail Pro has the capability of customizing the system of operations to accommodate the complexity of each product label group as expansion is implemented. My business level of operations is definitely one that does not resemble what would be considered a traditional retail system o f operations because each product label is considered to be a separate unit of business to start. When expansion changes the avenues on which each product label makes revenue, the already in-place POS tracking system has to be able to accommodate these changes.Retail Pro’s features and customizable system of operations can accommodate changes very easily. Even with the most complex system of operations a business could have, Retail Pro would be the best fit to meet all the needs and expectations I need to operate my retail business. MicroStrategy is, in my opinion, not as convenient a fit for my establishment and nature of my multiple revenue types because the product’s mobile capabilities is not a feature I consider important, if at all, when choosing a POS retail tracking system and it working efficiently for its purpose matching the structure of my business operations.I would use a POS retail tracking system upon business start-up because starting my POS system as t he business grows will be a positive action that will get results for the purpose of the tracking system benefits. As my business grows, doing business without a tracking system in place would be a sure failure. Company websites included inside this report: http://www. retailpro. com/ http://www. microstrategy. com/

Saturday, January 11, 2020

Police and Critical Thinking

As a police officer it is our role to observe, think about, and solve problems objectively and systematically. Police officers attend a variety of scenarios when working as a general duties officers it is our job to discover the truth; this requires the use of critical thinking and the scientific method of investigation to find the truth. When attending a job and conducting an investigation into a crime or offence police must utilise these skills as critical thinking and the scientific method of investigation go hand in hand with one another. In particular, to be able to make effective use of the scientific model, you need to be a critical thinker (Osterburg & Ward 1992 pp 11). Using the Scientific Method of Investigation requires police to identify the problem on arrival, then to form a hypothesis as to what has happened as well as possible suspects and motives. By collecting further data, police can then review their original hypothesis and start to make an evidence based conclusion on the incident at hand. The whole point of police investigations whatever the crime or incident is to arrive at the truth (Miller,L & Connelly,M. 1996). There are six steps to the scientific method of investigation. (Becker, RF, 2000, p. 7) The six steps are state the problem, create a hypothesis, collect all data, test the hypothesis, continue to collect data and finally arrive at a theory. By adhering to this method it provides framework that best assists police in discovering the truth about what happened in a structural, factual and reliable way. PPP232 Topic 3) In this essay I will be critiquing the way the police officers have investigated the assault on Mr Lee that took place and how the officers have used both critical thinking and the scientific method of Investigation, to gather all evidence available to find the truth, in an ethical manner. When applying the first stage of the investigation to the scenario the officers attending the scene are approached by the licensee of the Chiefly Hotel. Denis e Spence informs Senior Constable Baltrow that a barman who works in her hotel has been assaulted. Previous experience and observations are both factors which aid us in identifying a problem; this is known as ‘inductive reasoning. ’ In this case, I believe, both factors come into play for Senior Constable Baltrow. Senior constable Baltrow then begins to question the licensee. During the questioning process a male appears from down the street who seems to be out of breath. This male Gary Rawlings, states to police he has just chased a male who assaulted Dan Lee. It appears Mr Rawlings has a lot of valuable information about the assault. By using Denise and Gary’s evidence the Officer in charge is able to identify that a male has been assaulted and taken to Bathurst hospital. The problem has now been identified and the Officers can use their initial observations and the current information they have gathered to begin to form the hypothesis. â€Å"A working hypothesis is like an incomplete puzzle that comes together a piece at a time. † (Becker, 2000. pp. 4). After forming a logical hypothesis that the victim was assaulted by a male, it is now up to the officers to â€Å"Collect Further Data†. Whilst collecting data the Officers will be identifying, utilizing and evaluating various sources of information and evidence collected at the scene to help support their hypothesis. Both the statements give evidence to prove the assault took place but police have no information as to why the assault happened. Constable Buchman points out to Senior constable Baltrow that there is CCTV footage available. In collecting data it is also crucial for the police to be able to link all the evidence presented from witness, victim and available evidence from the crime scene. The next step in the investigation is to interpret the data and test the hypothesis. The statements made by the witnesses may change the officer’s hypothesis from ‘was the assault carried out intentionally or was in self-defence, the CCTV footage will provide officers with valuable evidence to support their hypothesis. For the officers to come to a decision, about their initial hypothesis, it requires critical thinking about their line of investigation. Critical thinking is an integral part of the scientific method of investigation. It is the examination and test of propositions of any kind which are offered for acceptance, in order to find out whether they correspond to reality or not. (Nixon, Stefanovic, & O’Conner, 2009, p. 74). The concept of critical thinking includes inductive and deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning is the process of arriving at a conclusion based on a set of observations. In itself it is not a valid piece of evidence as it can lead to assumptions, stereotypes and prejudices about a suspect. It can also lead to tunnel vision. Deductive reasoning is using the evidence and information at hand to create specific facts and ideas about what occurred during an incident. Its use can help create a hypothesis to help investigators advance in an investigation. It is a starting point for an investigation not a conclusion and an integral part of the scientific method of investigation (PPP232 Module 3). It is not your job to punish: your job is to discover the; who, what, where, when, how and why of an event, and then to report the matter to another authority (Court, Coroner, DPP, Workcover etc). This is the key role of investigation – discovering the truth of the matter and this subject strives to expand your knowledge and skills so you become an effective, professional and ethical investigator. The data that the investigating police were provided with through the investigation process was able to offer police with a sequence of events, before, during and after the incident. The data collected by the police has ensured that the witnesses version of events, matched up with the CCTV footage at the scene. This shows how important evidence is in the investigation process as it allows police to correctly identify and charge suspects according to law. The officers in the scenario believe they are dealing with an assault. To help investigate the crime further the officers will now gather additional data. The officers collect the CCTV footage which will play vital part in the investigation. A description of the suspect is given to Senior constable Baltrow and is broadcasted over the police radio. The officer in charge then proceeds further into the investigation when he is informed about a piece of wood which was used in the assault. The Officer locates the piece of wood and records, photographs and collects this evidence. The next stage of the investigation is to take statements from the witnesses, victim, to obtain a copy of the CCTV footage, and search the area for further witnesses or evidence. Police would then send out Forensic service Group to see if there is any further evidence they can obtain from the scene. The CCTV footage obtained will confirm the witness’s versions. The police now attend Bathurst Hospital to speak with Mr Lee and Catherine James about what occurred at the Chiefly Hotel. Their statements will be a vital part of the investigation. Police observations of Mr Lee’s injuries are consistent with the statements gathered. Police take statements which confirm and support the facts gathered about the assault. Over the radio police get a call stating that a male has been caught trespassing on a property. On arrival the person of interest appears to match the description of the accused involved in the assault at the Chiefly hotel. Applying critical thinking to the new evidence given about a male attempting to break into a property at Bathurst, police now have the suspect allowing for the investigation to begin. The officers are able to caution the offender and begin questioning Jason Priest about the assault. During the questioning process the accused states that the victim came up to him and assaulted him with the piece of wood. Using the CCTV footage the police will now have to view the footage to test this theory. At this stage of the investigation the officers believe they have sufficient data to support their decision on arresting the accused. The Officers will now need to collate any further evidence which would be beneficial to their case such as the victim and witness statements, CCTV footage, forensic evidence from the scenes and the photo identification back at Bathurst Police Station. The data which has been collected is all evidence that meets the description and identifies the suspect. Now that the police have obtained vital information they are able to place the two men out the front of the Chiefly hotel. The victim and first witness supplied important information to the Officers which allowed them to start the investigation, the officers were able to obtain sufficient data to support what type of offence was committed. The only barrier could be the witnesses may drawback from an investigation as they could be affected by emotion, threats, or fear to give their true account on what happened. The responding officers are in a position not only to influence the victim’s feelings, perceptions and assessments regarding the victimisation experience, but whether the victim will assist in the prosecution of the case. ’ In this prosecution the CCTV is important as it shows who has the piece of wood and the method in which it was used, intent or self-defence. The CCTV footage helps the officers comprehend what has occurred and collaborate the versions that hav e been represented by the witnesses. Police have obtained 3 forms of evidence: Real, Original and Documentary. Real evidence is an object, something tangible that is found at a crime scene or is related to an offence. In this scenario an example of real evidence is the piece of wood that was used by the accused as a weapon in the assault. Original evidence is evidence given by a witness, a statement and anything said by a person in relation to the offence and what they saw. Police obtained statements from Denise, Catherine James and Mr Lee. Documentary evidence is anything that can be classed as a document. Relating to this scenario the officers took photos of the weapon in the assault and collected CCTV footage from Denise the licensee of the hotel. From gathering and assessing all evidence police can now â€Å"Draw an Evidence Based Conclusion†. It is now up to the officers to use critical thinking to link all pieces of evidence to the crime to find the truth. By individualising each piece of evidence found, the officers can identify what each piece of evidence means, determine the reliability of the evidence and what range of conclusions can be drawn from it. By collecting further data, police can then review their original hypothesis and start to make an evidence based conclusion. When undertaking any role as a police officer it is important to maintain professionalism by acting in an ethical manner, The† Code of Conduct and Ethics† and â€Å"Statement of Values† provide guide lines for police to adhere to when undertaking this role. Police must always act in an ethical manner throughout their role as a police officer. Everything a police officer does is under scrutiny from fellow officers, victims, witnesses and of course the public, which is why it crucial that police act in an ethically sound manner. The â€Å"Code of Conduct and Ethics (CCE)† and â€Å"Statement of Values (SOV)† provides a framework in which the police are to operate. In this scenario the police have embraced the expectations from both the CCE and the SOV. The 3 main points of the CCE addressed in the scenario are: the officers â€Å"behaved honestly and in a way that upholds the values and the good reputation of the NSW police† and â€Å"acted with care and diligence†. The officers throughout the incident acted professionally, and made numerous decisions during the investigation some ethically correct and others which could have been dealt with differently. One of the decisions made which I believe to be unethical was not to IPE the person of interest. Section 201(2)(c) of LEPRA clearly states an officer must inform a person of their name, place of duty and give evidence that they are police officers if not in uniform before exercising any power. Failure to abide by this legislation deems all powers that are exercised unlawful. Due to the officers failing to abide by this safeguard the arrest would be considered unlawful. This could possibly see the collapse of the case in court and see a crime go unpunished. Another factor is that tunnel vision occurred when the officer in charge was questioning the witness at the scene. An example of the officers not thinking critically and letting tunnel vision take over is when the officer in charge broadcasted the description of the male wanted for the assault. At that stage the officers only assumed that an assault has occurred. Police also broadcasted a description of the accused over police radio, this was done without fully investigating and assuming that the witness was telling the truth. Police should have reviewed the CCTV footage from the hotel to ascertain that an assault had occurred and the description of the accused was correct. It seemed to me that officers performed fairly well. They sufficiently investigated the matter and were able to arrest the suspect for further in It is easy for us to watch this scenario unfold on DVD and criticise the actions and decisions of the two officers. However when you are placed in real life situation you need to focus on what will be in the public’s best interest and what ethical decisions will need to be made. It is important to remember that investigation is not a game with winners or losers it is a search for the truth based on the gathering of information in a fair and ethical manner. I believe that the Officers were able to provide a framework that best assisted them to the truth of the crime. In conclusion â€Å"Critical thinking† and the â€Å"Scientific Method of Investigation† are fundamental partners in criminal investigation. Together they form a â€Å"logical and scientific format† (Activity 6. 1) that enables an investigator to form logical conclusions based on the collected evidence. Critical thinking allows for conclusions coming forth from a number of different perspectives. Together this way of thinking is important in investigations as it aides investigators in answering questions and reconstructing the past. Often police are placed in a situation that requires them to solve a crime or identify an offender who committed an offence. The fact that the community have placed police in that role means it is the police who are accountable for finding the truth, and this is the basis of investigation – for police to search for the truth.

Thursday, January 2, 2020

Medieval Clothing Styles by Region and Period

In Europe,  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹medieval clothing varied according to the time frame as well as the region. Here are some societies (and segments of society) whose clothing styles are especially evocative of their cultures. Clothing of Late Antiquity, 3rd- to 7th-Century Europe Traditional Roman garb consisted largely of simple, single pieces of fabric that were carefully wrapped to cover the body. As the Western Roman Empire declined, fashions were influenced by the sturdy, protective garments of Barbarian peoples. The result was a synthesis of trousers and sleeved shirts with cloaks, stolas, and palliums. Medieval clothing would evolve from  late antique garments and styles. Byzantine Fashions, 4th- to 15th-Century Eastern Roman Empire People of the  Ã¢â‚¬â€¹Byzantine Empire inherited many of the traditions of Rome, but fashion was also influenced by the styles of the East. They abandoned wrapped garments for long-sleeved, flowing tunicas and dalmaticas that often fell to the floor. Thanks to Constantinoples standing as a center of trade, luxurious fabrics like silk and cotton were available to the richer Byzantines. Fashions for the elite changed frequently over the centuries, but the essential elements of costume remained fairly consistent. The extreme luxury of Byzantine fashions served as a counterpoint to most European medieval clothing. Viking Apparel, 8th- to 11th-Century Scandinavia and Britain Scandinavian and Germanic peoples in northern Europe dressed for warmth and utility. Men wore trousers, shirts with tight-fitting sleeves, capes, and hats. They often wore leg wraps around their calves and simple shoes or boots of leather. Women wore layers of tunics: linen under woolen overtunics, sometimes kept in place at the shoulders with decorative brooches. Viking clothing was often decorated with embroidery or braid. Aside from the tunic (which was also worn in Late Antiquity), most Viking garb had little influence on later European medieval clothing. European Peasant Dress, 8th- to 15th-Century Europe and Britain While the fashions of the upper classes were changing with the decade, peasants and laborers wore useful, modest garments that varied little over the centuries. Their outfits revolved around a simple yet versatile tunic — longer for women than for men — and were usually somewhat dull in color. High Medieval Fashion of the Nobility, 12th- to 14th-Century Europe and Britain For most of the early Middle Ages, the clothing worn by men and women of the nobility shared a basic pattern with that worn by the working classes, but was generally made of finer fabric, in bolder and brighter colors, and at times with additional decoration. In the late 12th and 13th century, to this plain style was added a surcoat, probably influenced by the tabard worn by crusading knights over their armor. It wasnt until the mid-14th century that designs really began to change noticeably, becoming more tailored and increasingly elaborate. It is the style of the nobility in the high Middle Ages that most people would recognize as medieval clothing. Italian Renaissance Style, 15th- to 17th-Century Italy Throughout the Middle Ages, but especially in the later Middle Ages, Italian cities such as Venice, Florence, Genoa, and Milan flourished as a result of international commerce. Families grew wealthy trading in spices, rare foods, jewels, furs, precious metals and, of course, cloth. Some of the finest and most sought-after fabrics were produced in Italy, and the extensive disposable income enjoyed by the Italian upper classes was spent lavishly on more and more ostentatious outfits. As costume evolved from medieval clothing to Renaissance fashion, the outfits were captured by artists who painted the portraits of their patrons as had not been done in earlier times. Sources Piponnier, Francoise, and Perrine Mane, Dress in the Middle Ages. Yale University Press, 1997, 167 pp. Kà ¶hler, Carl, A History of Costume. George G. Harrap and Company, Limited, 1928; reprinted by Dover; 464 pp. Norris, Herbert, Medieval Costume and Fashion. J.M. Dent and Sons, Ltd., London, 1927; reprinted by Dover; 485 pp. Jesch, Judith, Women in the Viking Age. Boydell Press, 1991, 248 pp. Houston, Mary G., Medieval Costume in England and France: The 13th, 14th and 15th Centuries. Adam and Charles Black, London, 1939; reprinted by Dover; 226 pp.